Optimization of water distribution networks is a NP-hard problem that researchers have tried to deal with using different formulations and algorithmic approaches. Among these, multi-objective heuristic algorithms are interesting because of their capacity for dealing with separate objectives that allow us to choose a posteriori the best compromise, but one of their main drawbacks is the long time required to obtain good solutions. Parallel processing is the most promising way to reduce the computing time and can make the convergence to adequate solutions faster. This paper intends to investigate the possibility of improving the efficacy and efficiency of an NSGA-II algorithm by parallelization of the optimization process at the same time. Results of different parallel implementations of NSGA-II applied to optimal design of small- and medium-size water distribution networks are presented. Good speed-up can be reached with a global model, hence improving the algorithm efficiency. Unlike the global model, the island model (or the hierarchical parallelization) can also improve its efficacy because it introduces fundamental changes in the algorithm exploration method. Possibilities offered by parallel island models have been investigated showing that some parameter configurations can find better solutions compared with the serial version of the algorithm.

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