An expanded rehabilitation of the hypothetical water distribution network of Anytown, USA is considered. As well as pipe rehabilitation decisions, tank sizing, tank siting and pump operation schedules are considered as design variables. Inclusion of pump operation schedules requires consideration of water system operation over the demand pattern period. Design of distribution storage facilities involves solving numerous issues and trade-offs such as locations, levels and volume. This paper investigates the application of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms in the identification of the pay-off characteristic between total cost, reliability and water quality of Anytown's water distribution system. A new approach is presented for formulation of the model. To provide flexibility, the network must be designed and operated under multiple loading conditions. The cost of the solution includes the capital costs of pipes and tanks as well as the present value of the energy consumed during a specified period. Optimization tends to reduce costs by reducing the diameter of, or completely eliminating, pipes, thus leaving the system with insufficient capacity to respond to pipe breaks or demands that exceed design values without violating required performance levels. Here a resilience index is considered as a second objective to increase the hydraulic reliability and the availability of water during pipe failures. Considering reliability as one of the objectives in the optimization process will decrease the level of vulnerability for the solutions and therefore will result in robust networks. However, oversized distribution mains and storage tanks will have adverse effects on water age with negative effects on water quality due to low flow velocity and little turnover, respectively. Therefore, another objective in the design and operation of distribution systems with storage facilities is the minimization of residence time, thus minimizing deterioration in water quality, which is directly associated with the age of water. Residence time must include not only the time in tanks but also the travel time before and after the water's entry into the storage facilities. The residence time of the water in the network is considered as a surrogate measure of water quality. Results are presented for the pay-off characteristics between total cost, reliability and water quality, for 24 h design and five loading conditions.
Evolutionary multi-objective optimization of the design and operation of water distribution network: total cost vs. reliability vs. water quality
Raziyeh Farmani, Godfrey Walters, Dragan Savic; Evolutionary multi-objective optimization of the design and operation of water distribution network: total cost vs. reliability vs. water quality. Journal of Hydroinformatics 1 July 2006; 8 (3): 165–179. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/hydro.2006.019b
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