Population movement, such as commuting, can affect water supply pressure and efficiency in modern cities. However, there is a gap in the research concerning the relationship between water use and population mobility, which is of great significance for urban water supply planning and supporting urban sustainable development. In this study, we analyzed the spatial–temporal dynamics of the population and its underlying mechanisms, using multi-source geospatial big data, including Baidu heat maps (BHMs), land use parcels, and point of interest. Combined with water consumption, sewage volume, and river depth data, the impact of population dynamics on water use was investigated. The results showed that there were obvious differences in population dynamics between weekdays and weekends with a ratio of 1.11 for the total population. Spatially, the population concentration was mainly observed in areas associated with enterprises, industries, shopping, and leisure activities during the daytime, while at nighttime, it primarily centered around residential areas. Moreover, the population showed a significant impact on water use, resulting in co-periods of 24 h and 7 days, and the water consumption as well as the wastewater production were observed to be proportional to the population density. This study can offer valuable implications for urban water resource allocation strategies.

  • Analysis of spatiotemporal population distribution and mobility based on the Baidu heat map.

  • Population dynamics mechanisms related to land use.

  • A novel idea exploring the impact of population dynamics on water use.

  • Valuable implications for optimizing and controlling water supply and wastewater treatment systems.

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