The pollution issues with urban rivers is one of the key factors affecting the urban ecological environment, and water pollution control has become the top task for urban ecological construction. The first step of controlling water environment pollution is to have an objective knowledge of the water quality. This research selects the rivers in the Linyi Development Zone as the subject and analyzes the major pollution factors and the spatial-temporal distribution characteristics of the main pollutants in the river system based on routine monitoring data of the river system in the zone from August 2014 to May 2017, and also accurately judges the variation trend of the water quality with the time through the Spearman rank relational coefficient. The research result shows that NH3-N, TP, CODCr, CODMn, BOD5 are the main pollution factors. Between 2014 and 2017, the overall water quality variation trend of the river system in the development zone is very significant, and the water quality variation basically remains stable. The water quality variation and major pollution sources of the rivers in the development zone are judged, providing an important basis for the water ecology construction of the development zone.