Climate change is an unavoidable phenomenon of natural and anthropogenic origin against which mitigation and adaptation are required to reduce the magnitude of impact and vulnerability, to avoid risk in vegetable farming and to ensure sustainable livelihoods of the agricultural community. Genetic improvement of vegetable crops is an appropriate adaptation strategy to cope with climate change adversities. A combination study of genomics and phenomics provides a clear understanding of the environment's effect on the transformation of a genotype into phenotype. Grafting of a susceptible scion cultivar onto a resistant rootstock is another way of utilising plant biodiversity against climate change. Agronomic practices such as resource conservation technologies, mulching, organic farming, carbon sequestration by cropping systems and agroforestry provide a suite of possible strategies for addressing the impacts of climate change on vegetable production. Protected cultivation and post-harvest technology can be significant practices in facing the challenges of climate change. Weather forecasting models and growth simulation models can be used to predict the possible impact of climate change on vegetable crop production and they also help in framing necessary adaptation measures.