Extreme hydrological events have occurred in many climate zones in recent decades. Most importantly, the water distribution in hydrological components has changed with apparent variations in climate. The associated impact on water resources is of concern because an understanding of the hydrological response mechanism is necessary for human survival. In this study, we compare precipitation and streamflow responses to climate variations in two different climate zones. Continental-scale frigid zone (CSFZ) data were collected from Russia, while island-scale subtropical zone (ISSZ) data were collected from Taiwan. The results show that the teleconnection of the precipitation between the ISSZ and CSFZ is subtle and is linked to global atmospheric conditions. The daily maximum precipitation and the duration without precipitation increased in both the CSFZ and the ISSZ. The streamflow response became more extreme in the ISSZ and was associated with pronounced dry and wet seasons. In contrast, a rise in winter temperatures has led to more uniform streamflow and extreme hydrological situations have become less frequent. The responses of streamflow to recent climate variations in the CSFZ and ISSZ are different. Precipitation and temperature are driving forces for the change in streamflow in the CSFZ while precipitation is for the ISSZ.