The new theory shows that the global and the Arctic atmospheres behave as an open atmosphere (few clouds) or as a ‘closed’ atmosphere (fully cloudy), which explains the Arctic ice melting. Within the closed atmosphere the solar radiation, wind and evaporation are reduced while the water and air temperatures and the humidity increase. Real data confirm these effects for the planet and for the Arctic. Many authors did not understand these apparent inconsistencies, but this paper solves many intriguing problems, and solutions which led the present author to discover the new hydrological cycle. Some human activities increase the formation of clouds and precipitation or of droughts. The sun is not the only heat source for the atmosphere. Several real data confirm that clouds have increased over decades globally and at the Arctic. These intensifications also confirm the operation of the new hydrological cycle and of the Sartori theory. Many real data show that while the Arctic ice has melted, the cloud cover has pushed the temperatures up above freezing and has raised them by 2–3 °C compared to cloudless skies as well as acting to warm the Arctic for most of the annual cycles.

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