This study utilized a spatio-temporal framework to assess the dispersion and uncertainty of precipitation in Iran. Thirty-one rain gauges with data from 1960 to 2010 were selected in order to apply the entropy concept and study spatio-temporal variability of precipitation. The variability of monthly, seasonal and annual precipitation series was studied using the marginal disorder index (MDI). To investigate the intra-annual and decadal distribution of monthly and annual precipitation values, the apportionment disorder index (ADI) and decadal ADI (DADI) were applied to the time series. The continuous wavelet transform was used to decompose the ADI time series into time-frequency domains. The decomposition of the ADI series into different zones helped to identify the dominant modes of variability and the variation of those modes over time. The results revealed the high disorderliness in the amount of precipitation for different temporal scales based on disorder indices. Based on the DI outcome for all rain gauges, a self-organizing map (SOM) was trained to find the optimum number of clusters (seven) of rain gauges. It was observed from the clustering that there was hydrologic similarity in the clusters apart from the geographic neighborhood.

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