Abstract

Dipole phenomena in ocean-atmospheric variability such as the Indian Ocean Dipole have been recognized as important factors that greatly affect local climates. This study presents evidence of two dipole modes in sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) over high latitude Southern Hemisphere (one in South Pacific and one in South Indian Ocean), identified using empirical orthogonal functions and cross-correlation analysis. These dipole modes have interannual periodicity, which is also explored for their seasonal variability and modes. Herein, a dipole mode is defined as a quasi-periodic oscillation between positive and negative phases in the various climate proxies, though predominantly in SST, which is supported by the signal's synchronized relationship with atmospheric variability (as recorded by pressure and wind records). In addition, the dipole modes have a clear synchronization relationship to local precipitation records, which is described in this paper. For this purpose, an index to represent the time-dependent evolution of each dipole mode and to better define and understand the teleconnections of the dipole modes with other climate variables was defined. The findings described here provide a more precise and unique understanding of the globally distributed SSTA teleconnections and climate's synchronized dynamics than that has currently been studied.

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