Water resources in Egypt have become stressed due to changes in climate patterns. Egypt is characterized by two seasons, a mild, wet winter and a hot, dry summer. In recent years, many areas have become vulnerable to the impact of extreme climate events. The impact of these events on water supplies has become more pronounced. This study states that there is a tangible impact of extreme climate events upon both water resources quality and water supplies. The Nile river water turbidity was investigated as an operational indicator for the water treatment plants (WTPs). The results illustrated that an unprecedented increase in average turbidity of raw water in Upper Egypt (from 4 up to 110 NTU) led to a cut in water supplies for up to 100 hours in some areas. While in Alexandria the turbidity did affect WTP operation efficiency, safe water could still be produced. Cuts in water supply would have an impact on hygiene and make people prone to use unsafe water sources. These consequences stimulate water supply bodies to develop action plans to mitigate and/or avoid such potential impacts on public health. This study suggests proposed steps to develop an appropriate plan to face such extreme events.

INTRODUCTION

Climate change could be considered to be the most severe environmental problem the world is facing today. The problem will not be eliminated but civilization will be forced to adapt to the new conditions. One of the key issues in the adaptation process is the sustainability of water resources. The water resources undergo stress as a result of many factors, such as water quality variation, urban development (domestic water consumption, industrialization, agriculture, and urbanization), and population growth.

For heavy rainfall and strong hydrologic conditions, runoff and solid material transportation are the main consequences. For countries in the temperate zone, climate change will decrease the number of rainy days but increase the average volume of each rainfall event (Brunetti et al. 2001; Bates et al. 2008). As a consequence, drought–rewetting cycles may impact water quality as they enhance decomposition and flushing of organic matter into streams (Evans et al. 2005). Many of the reported outbreaks were observed after heavy rainfall events, which suggests that such events could result in deterioration of the quality of drinking water (Tornevi 2015).

Heavy rainfall can provide challenges for drinking water producers and have consequences for drinking water supply. Extreme weather affects both surface water and ground water resources, but distribution systems and wastewater treatment plants are also, to varying degrees, not designed to cope with extreme weather. With excessive rainfall, runoff causes the water in many surface water sources to become too turbid to treat with a higher content of humus, but it may also contain more pathogens. Climate change is believed, therefore, to affect both groundwater and surface water sources, but surface water sources are particularly vulnerable to extreme weather events because surface water resources exhibit greater and quicker variations in quality than groundwater sources (Delpla et al. 2009).

Sustainable management of water resources requires the design of appropriate strategies, approaches, and measures to achieve an optimal distribution and use of water. Hence, preparations for these events in the future are necessary to develop such sustainable concepts.

Egypt is a part of the East Mediterranean region which is characterized by mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers (Said et al. 2012). Precipitation rates drop quickly as one moves away from the coast. Most of Egypt receives about 2 mm of precipitation per year. Thus, most of Egypt is a desert and can be classified as arid. The exception is the slightly wetter Mediterranean coast, which can be considered semiarid (MrGeogWagg 2015).

The Nile delta varies in extent under the impact of storm surges and heavy rains due to extreme climate events. The trend for these extreme climate events is to become longer term and longer lasting. The heavy rainfall across Egypt has caused rapid flooding affecting many regions of the country. This heavy rainfall swept away a great deal of dirt and dust from surrounding environments to the watercourses, which would have a great influence on the quality and quantity of the water.

This study concentrates on two significant events which had a severe influence on water supplies in two different regions at different times. The first event was a heavy rainfall event in the north-west of the Nile delta (Alexandria region, 2015) while the second one was a heavy rainfall event in the Red Sea Mountains (Sohag Governorate, Upper Egypt region, 2014). The floods were hydrodynamically directed towards the valleys and the rainwater drained to the River Nile.

STUDY AREA

This paper investigates two areas in Egypt that have undergone the effects of extreme events in recent years. The two areas are investigated in different ways (climatically, geographically, and in terms of water resources quality).

The north-west of Nile delta (Alexandria region)

Geographically

This area extends for about 60 km from the Rosetta branch of the River Nile in the east to El-Max Bay in the west including the Alexandria governorate (Said et al. 2012). It is one of the oldest cities on the Mediterranean coast and is an important tourist, industrial, and economic center. About 40% of all Egyptian industry is located within the governorate of Alexandria (Khatri et al. 2007). The area is characterized by lowlands, waterfront, and beaches. The lowlands on which the city of Alexandria originally developed are vulnerable to inundation, water logging, increased flooding and salinization under accelerated sea level rise (Said et al. 2012) (Figure 1).
Figure 1

The low-lying lands on the north coast of Egypt.

Figure 1

The low-lying lands on the north coast of Egypt.

Climatically

According to the Koppen Climate classification this area is considered as a semi-desert and characterized by two seasons only: a mild winter from November to April and a hot summer from May to October.

The north-west of the Nile delta is one of the wettest areas in Egypt, where the annual rainfall average is around 200 mm but can be as high as 417 mm (Tutiempo.net 2016). The rainfall decreases suddenly a few kilometers away from the coastal strip.

Water supply

The main source of water for agriculture, domestic, and industrial purposes are two main canals, El-Mahmoudia and Nubaria. These two canals fluctuate in water quality which could be attributed to different reasons such as the water feeders for these canals, the types of discharge into the canals and finally the type of soils in which these canals are located.

Regarding drinking water, the Alexandria Water Company (AWC) is considered ultimately responsible for drinking water supply for all the inhabitants in the area especially in the coastal strip (Figure 2).
Figure 2

The main water resources and water utilities in the north-west of the Nile delta.

Figure 2

The main water resources and water utilities in the north-west of the Nile delta.

AWC is an affiliated body to the Holding Company for Water and Wastewater (HCWW) and it provides its services through production of drinking water according to the Egyptian standard from nine water treatment plants (WTPs) with total design capacity of 3.5 Mm3/day. The actual producing capacity is 2.4 Mm3/day and this water quantity serves about 4 million inhabitants, increasing to 6 million inhabitants during summer vacations (Alexandria Water Company n.d.).

Upper Egypt

Geographically

The second investigated area is the Upper Egypt area consisting of two different topographic features, the Sahara (Desert) with its hills and mountains (such as the Red Sea Mountains) and the plain of the Nile valley (such as Sohag Governorate) characterized by concentrated urbanization aspects such as residential settlements, cultivated lands, and industrialization.

While the population in Sahara (Desert) is sparse, the Sohag Governorate, which is located in the Nile valley, is densely populated with about 4.1 million inhabitants.

Many Wadis cleave the Red Sea Mountains acting as carriers for heavy rains toward the lowland of the River Nile plain. Wadi Qena is one of the most important valleys in the Red Sea Mountains, with about 350 km flowing parallel to the Nile valley, Wadi Qena's watershed occupies an area of approximately 15,700 km2 (Moawad et al. 2016) (Figure 3).
Figure 3

The Wadi Qena, its watershed, and Sohag's water utilities.

Figure 3

The Wadi Qena, its watershed, and Sohag's water utilities.

Climatically

As in the rest of Egypt, the weather in Upper Egypt is characterized by desert weather. The year in these two areas (Red Sea Mountains and Sohag Governorate) is divided into two seasons in terms of climate conditions: winter – cold starting from November until April, and summer – very hot starting from May until October. There is a large difference in the annual amount of rainfall between the two areas and that is attributed to topographical factors such as the strong variation in ground surface levels. One mm is the average annual rainfall in Sohag Governorate, while it is 27 mm in the Red Sea Mountains.

Heavy rains occasionally occur (Warner 2004) owing to the sudden change of weather patterns that brings more extreme weather events, of which flash floods of the wadis (dry valleys) are the most devastating. Floods in the Sahara are often characterized by deep and fast flowing water; these floods are combined with the short time available to respond (Seene 2013). Based on these indicators, the WTPs which are located downstream of the Wadi Qena are directly affected.

Water supply

The River Nile and the irrigation canals represent the main water resources in Sohag Governorate; these represent about 70% of the drinking water production in the governorate and the remaining 30% is abstracted from groundwater. Sohag Water and Wastewater Company (SWWC) (an affiliated company of the HCWW) is responsible for drinking water production and distribution to all the inhabitants. SWWC has many utilities for water treatment and purification. Nowadays, the water supply approach in the region is changing from many small surface water and groundwater treatment plants (GWTP) to large centralized treatment plants. Now SWWC has at least eight conventional surface water treatment plants (SWTP), 31 compact SWTP, and 206 GWTP with a total production capacity of 0.7 Mm3/day.

Data analysis

In this study, two main subjects were investigated: climate features and water quality. The climate features were investigated via processing of the archived data available at https://en.tutiempo.net/climate/egypt.html. In order to identify trends, statistical analysis was used. Linear regression is one of the simplest methods to calculate the trend of data in time series. The equation of a linear regression line is given by: 
formula
1
where x is the explanatory variable and Y is the dependent variable. The slope line is b, and a is the intercept (value of y when x = 0). The slope of regression describes the trend whether positive or negative. In this study independent variable Y is rainfall and explanatory variable X is the year (Dindang et al. 2013).

In this study, Microsoft Excel was used to calculate the trend lines and statistical values of linear regression analysis.

For the other subject of analysis, water quality data was collected from intakes of WTPs highlighting turbidity because it has a significant influence on WTP operation. This approach was helpful in studying the potential impact of the extreme climate events on the water supply sustainability.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Precipitation

Historical data concerning the precipitation rate and the rainy days were compiled and covered the period 1980–2015. These data are analyzed and illustrated graphically to demonstrate the trend of climate pattern during the study period.

Precipitation rate in the north-west of the Nile delta (Alexandria region)

It is clear from Figure 4 that the precipitation rate has tended to increase, especially in the last decade. The exception occurred in 2010 when precipitation was much lower than the normal rate at 67.08 mm.
Figure 4

Trend analysis of annual and real precipitation over the north-west of the Nile delta (i.e. Alexandria region) during 1980–2015 and trend line for the number of annual rainy days per year. The trend line of annual precipitation is described by Y = 1.2596x + 175.86 (r2 = 0.02). The trend line of annual rainy days is described by Y = 1.0806x + 56.456 (r2 = 0.4745).

Figure 4

Trend analysis of annual and real precipitation over the north-west of the Nile delta (i.e. Alexandria region) during 1980–2015 and trend line for the number of annual rainy days per year. The trend line of annual precipitation is described by Y = 1.2596x + 175.86 (r2 = 0.02). The trend line of annual rainy days is described by Y = 1.0806x + 56.456 (r2 = 0.4745).

In contrast, the number of rainy days has tended to decrease even with a high precipitation rate. So the gap between the precipitation rate and the number of rainy days has become wider. This means that a large amount of rainfall occurs in fewer days, which seems unusual. This may indicate a change in the climate towards more extreme events, at least during the study period.

Figure 5 clarifies the mean monthly precipitation, including rain and hail, falling on the Alexandria region during the year 2015. It is clear that the precipitation rate increases sharply in October while in summer it seems that there is no precipitation. So this figure could help to illustrate the potential effect on the water utilities and the drinking water supplies during the climate events.
Figure 5

Monthly precipitation rate in the north-west of the Nile delta (i.e. Alexandria region) during 2015 as a normal cycle.

Figure 5

Monthly precipitation rate in the north-west of the Nile delta (i.e. Alexandria region) during 2015 as a normal cycle.

Precipitation rate in Upper Egypt

Figure 6 illustrates that in the 1990s, the Red Sea Mountains region saw a severe drought period with a sharp decrease in the precipitation rate from year to year.
Figure 6

Trend analysis of annual and real precipitation over the Upper Egypt area (i.e. Red Sea Mountains) during 1991–2015 and trend line for the number of annual rainy days per year. The trend line of annual precipitation is described by Y = 0.8204x + 17.711 (r2 = 0.0135). The trend line of annual rainy days is described by Y = 0.0026x + 1.2095 (r2 = 0.4745).

Figure 6

Trend analysis of annual and real precipitation over the Upper Egypt area (i.e. Red Sea Mountains) during 1991–2015 and trend line for the number of annual rainy days per year. The trend line of annual precipitation is described by Y = 0.8204x + 17.711 (r2 = 0.0135). The trend line of annual rainy days is described by Y = 0.0026x + 1.2095 (r2 = 0.4745).

From 2000 onwards, the precipitation rate tends to increase according to the regression line. However, the number of rainy days remains almost constant; thereby, a relatively high precipitation amount has fallen in a few days. This could explain the flash floods which happened in Upper Egypt, in addition to other factors related to biodiversity, hydrological and run-off properties of the soil.

On a yearly basis and returning to the historical data, the heavy rain events change from month to month (Table 1); this makes early prediction difficult. At the same time, prediction of the effect of these events on the Nile River seems inapplicable; this is because the severity of these events depends on the direction and the pattern of rain-bearing clouds.

Table 1

Extreme events in the Red Sea Mountains region on a monthly basis, 2011–2015

Years Month of the extreme event 
2011 January 
2012 October 
2013 January 
2014 March 
2015 September/November 
Years Month of the extreme event 
2011 January 
2012 October 
2013 January 
2014 March 
2015 September/November 

Figure 7 shows that in March 2014 Wadi Qena carried a large amount of rainwater toward the Nile River.
Figure 7

Monthly precipitation rate in the Red Sea Mountains during 2014 as a normal cycle.

Figure 7

Monthly precipitation rate in the Red Sea Mountains during 2014 as a normal cycle.

Regarding the significant amount of precipitation that occurs in only a few hours, leading to severe flooding, Table 1 details the main extreme events that have happened in the Red Sea Mountains region.

Extreme climate impact on water quality

The combination of precipitation rate and the monthly average of raw water turbidity are very helpful in understanding the impact of extreme climate events on the water resources and water supply sustainability.

Extreme climate impact on water quality in the north-west of the Nile delta (Alexandria region)

Figure 8 illustrates how the heavy rains have a slight impact on the turbidity of water resources and an unusual increase in turbidity was more evident concurrently with the heavy rains in October. This feature could be attributed to heavy rains that sweep away the soil and clay from cultivated lands into watercourses, especially in locations away from urban areas. On the other hand, the water quality still allows operation of the WTPs; however, such events have an influence on the filter washing time intervals, which were decreased from 24 hours to less than 16 hours which of course decreased the amount of produced water.
Figure 8

Relation between the heavy rains and the monthly average turbidity of water resources in the Alexandria region.

Figure 8

Relation between the heavy rains and the monthly average turbidity of water resources in the Alexandria region.

Extreme climate impact on water quality in Upper Egypt

Examining Figure 9, the significant influence of heavy rains on the water turbidity of the River Nile is more evident. March saw an unexpected increase in turbidity levels of the Nile River that had a direct impact on the sustainability of water supplies in Sohag Governorate.
Figure 9

Relation between the heavy rains and the monthly average turbidity of water resources in the Upper Egypt region (Sohag).

Figure 9

Relation between the heavy rains and the monthly average turbidity of water resources in the Upper Egypt region (Sohag).

Table 2 shows that these unprecedented levels of turbidity exceeded the tolerance capacity of drinking water plants to deal with this high turbidity. That has led to a shutdown of all the surface drinking water plants, both conventional and compact, for some time. The downtime duration reached 72 hours in some conventional WTPs and 100 hours in compact WTPs. This illustrates the difference in tolerance ability among different types of WTPs to treat highly turbid water.

Table 2

WTP capacity, downtime duration, and population served

Series WTP Actual capacity (m3/day) Turbidity at downtime (NTU) Downtime duration (hours) Population 
El-Baliana 34,000 110 44 170,000 
Gerga 30,000 55 40 120,000 
El-Monshah 34,000 100 35 170,000 
Sohag West 26,000 125 72 130,000 
Neda 34,000 110 35 170,000 
Akhmim 8,000 77 48 40,000 
El-Maragha 68,000 120 59 340,000 
Tahta 17,000 35 52 85,000 
Series WTP Actual capacity (m3/day) Turbidity at downtime (NTU) Downtime duration (hours) Population 
El-Baliana 34,000 110 44 170,000 
Gerga 30,000 55 40 120,000 
El-Monshah 34,000 100 35 170,000 
Sohag West 26,000 125 72 130,000 
Neda 34,000 110 35 170,000 
Akhmim 8,000 77 48 40,000 
El-Maragha 68,000 120 59 340,000 
Tahta 17,000 35 52 85,000 

The plant shutdown would make a lot of people prone to use unsafe water source for drinking and domestic uses; for example, household water containers and hand water pumps. These non-routine sources could be contaminated. For example, a literature review found 11 observational studies in developing countries showing that mean coliform levels (an indicator of contamination) were considerably higher in household water containers than in the original source waters (VanDerslice & Briscoe 1993).

In terms of water safety plans, this kind of usage of alternative unsafe water sources is classified as a high potential risk to public health (WHO 2005). Especially when it is known that the sanitation service coverage in Egypt does not exceed 50% (HCWW 2016).

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Extreme climate events as a result of climate variability have an impact on both water supply and sanitation systems efficiency; so the water utilities and also the sanitation systems become more stressed, which would increase the probability of cutting water supplies, reducing hygienic behavior, which would have a potential impact on public health.

Despite the fact that flash floods in arid areas are generally rare and infrequent (Reid et al. 1994), observations of heavy rain events in recent years indicate that they have become noticeably more frequent.

The rainfall could be predicted by meteorological measurements, but the amount, frequency, severity and even the timing (sometimes) of the heavy rain is variable and unpredictable over the years studied.

Therefore, water suppliers have to seek approaches and adaptation measures to deal with the sudden extreme climate events or other incidents that may affect the water supplies to ensure the sustainability of supplies in the framework of the sustainable water management concept.

Adaptation measures

Climate change and its related events are presenting more and more new challenges to traditional water supply management.

Within the water management framework, the climate features are relatively beyond the scope of water managers and experts. Also, the water suppliers' bodies have limited knowledge of climate change vulnerabilities.

Among the water management bodies, a great deal of adaptation measures, policies, and strategies could be developed to mitigate the impacts and the potential risks as well. However, to integrate all of these efforts there must first be a minimum requirement of consensus, understanding, and sense of responsibility among the stakeholders.

Concerning water supply bodies, this study seeks to determine a potential action plan in order to develop adaptation measures as a response to extreme climate events.

For existing adaptation measures and plans, multidimensional concepts and approaches are taken into consideration in the framework of integrated water management and public health-based targets. These measures must involve the main steps including: warming-up, planning, actions, and evaluation/feedback shown in Table 3.

Table 3

Headlines of the adaptation measures

Guidelines Main steps Sub-steps Suggested mechanism 
Warming-up Awareness raising: Among the different water management-related entities and stakeholders at national, regional and local level, to increase understanding about climate change and its impact on water resources Define and distribute both the responsibilities and the roles according to the main responsibility of each entity 
  • Regular meetings

  • Informative workshops and seminars

  • Media orientation toward the climatic issues

  • Consultation with water users

  • Workshops

  • Sharing the points of view

 
Problem detection (through introducing the impact of extreme climate events on water supplies) 
Problem definition (from different points of view and including the concerns of each entity 
Planning Individual work: this work is done internally within the water supply bodies and aims to develop a quick intervention during the extreme events to mitigate and/or avoid cutting off water supplies during these events Water demand management 
  • Calculate water balance and the main demand by defining the main component and particular interests

  • Updating scenario of WTP shutdown

 
Adaptation concerning operation measures 
  • Readiness of alternative water resources (groundwater sites, desalination plants)

  • Capacity and readiness of the storage reservoirs

  • Conjunction use and the readiness of switching

 
Water-quality management 
  • Hazard identification

  • Risk assessment and risk analysis

 
  • Define the operational alert limits

  • Define health risks alert

 
Mutual work: integrated work among stakeholders (at different levels) based on understanding and collaboration 
  • Coordinate the necessary interactions among the executive levels

  • Long-term investment decisions

  • Secure the funds to finance the developed coping plans and measures

  • Empower the water suppliers to cope with the extreme events

 
  • Appoint the steering committee including representatives of all stakeholders

  • Setting the monitoring and follow-up points (i.e. WTP intakes, meteorological points)

  • Define the communication mechanisms among the stakeholders in both vertical and horizontal dimensions

 
Implementation 
  • Various modifications to infrastructure in extreme event-prone areas

  • Establishing and protecting small-scale decentralized supplies (i.e. compact WTP)

  • Establishing and protecting large-scale, centralized supplies (SWTP)

  • Execute capacity building and improvement programs

  • Execute maneuvers to ensure preparedness for extreme climate events

  • Detailed engineering, procurement, communication and management

 
Evaluation and feedback 
  • Design an evaluation plan

  • Feedback to steering committee

  • Suggest improvement plans

 
Guidelines Main steps Sub-steps Suggested mechanism 
Warming-up Awareness raising: Among the different water management-related entities and stakeholders at national, regional and local level, to increase understanding about climate change and its impact on water resources Define and distribute both the responsibilities and the roles according to the main responsibility of each entity 
  • Regular meetings

  • Informative workshops and seminars

  • Media orientation toward the climatic issues

  • Consultation with water users

  • Workshops

  • Sharing the points of view

 
Problem detection (through introducing the impact of extreme climate events on water supplies) 
Problem definition (from different points of view and including the concerns of each entity 
Planning Individual work: this work is done internally within the water supply bodies and aims to develop a quick intervention during the extreme events to mitigate and/or avoid cutting off water supplies during these events Water demand management 
  • Calculate water balance and the main demand by defining the main component and particular interests

  • Updating scenario of WTP shutdown

 
Adaptation concerning operation measures 
  • Readiness of alternative water resources (groundwater sites, desalination plants)

  • Capacity and readiness of the storage reservoirs

  • Conjunction use and the readiness of switching

 
Water-quality management 
  • Hazard identification

  • Risk assessment and risk analysis

 
  • Define the operational alert limits

  • Define health risks alert

 
Mutual work: integrated work among stakeholders (at different levels) based on understanding and collaboration 
  • Coordinate the necessary interactions among the executive levels

  • Long-term investment decisions

  • Secure the funds to finance the developed coping plans and measures

  • Empower the water suppliers to cope with the extreme events

 
  • Appoint the steering committee including representatives of all stakeholders

  • Setting the monitoring and follow-up points (i.e. WTP intakes, meteorological points)

  • Define the communication mechanisms among the stakeholders in both vertical and horizontal dimensions

 
Implementation 
  • Various modifications to infrastructure in extreme event-prone areas

  • Establishing and protecting small-scale decentralized supplies (i.e. compact WTP)

  • Establishing and protecting large-scale, centralized supplies (SWTP)

  • Execute capacity building and improvement programs

  • Execute maneuvers to ensure preparedness for extreme climate events

  • Detailed engineering, procurement, communication and management

 
Evaluation and feedback 
  • Design an evaluation plan

  • Feedback to steering committee

  • Suggest improvement plans

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The research team appreciates the support they received from Mr Fadel and Mr Mohammed Ali (Geographical Information System (GIS) department, HCWW) for this study. The team is also grateful to the quality departments in both Alexandria and Sohag water companies. Finally, the authors thank colleagues in the general department of Quality and Environmental Affairs (HCWW) for their effort in the data collecting. Finally, I express my deep gratitude to Dr Jauad El Kharraz for his help and support.

REFERENCES

REFERENCES
Alexandria Water Company
n.d.
Company Profile
. ).
Bates
B. C.
Kundzewicz
Z. W.
Wu
S.
Palutikof
J. P.
2008
Climate Change and Water
.
Technical Paper of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
.
IPCC Secretariat
,
Geneva
.
Delpla
I.
Jung
A. V.
Baures
E.
Clement
M.
Thomas
O.
2009
Impacts of climate change on surface water quality in relation to drinking water production
.
Environ. Int.
35
,
1225
1233
.
Dindang
A.
Taat
A.
Eng Beng
P.
Mohd Alwi
A.
Mandai
A.
Mat Adam
S.
Othman
F.
Awang Bima
D.
Lah
D.
2013
Statistical and Trend Analysis of Rainfall Data in Kuching, Sarawak From 1968 to 2010
.
Malaysian Meteorological Department, Ministry of Science, Technology, and Innovation
,
Malaysia
.
Holding Company for Water and Wastewater (HCWW) Egypt
2016
http://www.hcww.com.eg (accessed 12 April 2017
).
Khatri
K. B.
Van der Steen
P.
Vairavamoorthy
K.
2007
Climate Change: Alexandria – Egypt
.
UNESCO-IHE
,
Delft
,
The Netherlands
.
Moawad
M. B.
Abdelaziz
A. O.
Mamtimin
B.
2016
Flash floods in the Sahara: a case study for the 28 January 2013 flood in Qena, Egypt
.
Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk
7
(
1
),
215
236
.
MrGeogWagg
2015
Lesson 6 – Climate Change in Egypt
. ).
Reid
I.
Powell
D. M.
Laronne
J. B.
Garcia
C.
1994
Flash floods in desert rivers: studying the unexpected
.
EOS, Trans Am. Geophysical Union
75
(
39
),
452
.
Said
M. A.
El-Geziry
T. M.
Radwan
A. A.
2012
Long-term trends of extreme climate events over Alexandria region, Egypt
. In:
INOC-CNRS, International Conference on Land–Sea Interactions in the Coastal Zone
,
Jounieh, Lebanon
.
Seene
K.
2013
Flash Floods: Forecasting and Warning
.
Springer
,
Dordrecht
,
Germany
.
Tornevi
A.
2015
Precipitation, Raw Water Quality, Drinking Water Treatment and Gastrointestinal Illness
.
Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University
,
Sweden
.
Tutiempo.net
2016
Climate in Alexandria/Nouzha: Historicos del tiempo
. ).
Warner
T. T.
2004
Desert Meteorology
.
Cambridge University Press
,
Edinburgh
.
WHO
2005
Water Safety Plans: Managing Drinking-Water Quality From Catchment to Consumer
.
World Health Organization
,
Geneva
.