Topical research on hydrological impacts of climate change in terms of downscaling of monthly precipitation is investigated in this paper by formulating an inclusive multiple modelling (IMM) strategy. IMM strategies manage multiple models at two levels and the paper uses statistical downscaling model, Sugeno fuzzy logic and support vector machine at Level 1 and feeds their outputs to a neuro-fuzzy model at Level 2. In the downscaling stage, large-scale NCEP (National Centres for Environmental Prediction)/NCAR (National Centre for Atmospheric Research) data for a station with local data record from 1961 to 2005 are used for training and testing Level 1 models, which are found to be ‘fit-for-purpose’, but the variations between them signify some room for improvements. The model at Level 2 combines outputs of those at Level 1 and produces Level 2 results, which are over the Level 1 models in terms of dispersion of residual errors. In this way, IMM provides a more defensible modelling strategy for application in the projection stage. The comparison between observed and projected precipitation indicates that precipitation will be likely to reduce compared with observed precipitation in cold seasons (October–February), but the projected precipitation will be likely to increase slightly in wet seasons (April and May).


  • Inclusive multiple modelling (IMM) is formulated for the downscaling of precipitation.

  • IMM manages multiple regression and artificial intelligence models at two levels.

  • Performances of IMM are improved over Level 1 models in the downscaling stage.

  • IMM provides a more defensible strategy for application in the projection stage.

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