Climate change is a worldwide problem caused by various anthropogenic activities, leading to changes in hydroclimatic variables like temperature, rainfall, riverine flow, and extreme hydrometeorological events. In India, a significant change is noted in its natural resources and agriculture sectors. In this study, we analysed the long-term spatio-temporal change in rainfall patterns of Madhya Pradesh, Central India, using Indian Meteorological Department high-resolution gridded data from 439 grid points. The coefficient of variance analysis showed low variability in annual and monsoon rainfall but significant variability in pre-monsoon, post-monsoon, and winter seasons, indicating considerable seasonal variation. Pre-monsoon rainfall exhibited an increasing trend (0.018 mm annually), while annual, monsoon, post-monsoon, and winter rainfall showed decreasing trends. Change point analysis identified shifts in rainfall patterns in 1998 (monsoon, annual), 1955 (pre-monsoon), 1987 (post-monsoon), and 1986 (winter). Spatio-temporal distribution maps depicted irregular rainfall, with some areas experiencing drastic declines in precipitation after 1998. The maximum average annual rainfall reduced from 1,769 to 1,401 mm after 1998 affecting water availability. The study's findings highlight a significant shift in Madhya Pradesh's seasonal rainfall distribution after 1998, urging researchers and policymakers to address water-intensive cropping practices and foster climate resilience for a sustainable future in the region.

  • The study analysed long-term rainfall patterns in Madhya Pradesh using high-resolution gridded data from 439 IMD grid points.

  • The results show a significant decrease in annual, monsoon, post-monsoon, and winter rainfall and a positive trend in the pre-monsoon season.

  • The study provides important information for policymakers to plan and implement climate-resilient regional strategies.

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