The majority of cities in the Saharan territory of south Morocco utilize waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) for municipal wastewater treatment because of their relatively low capital, operational costs, and minimal complexity. New national effluent quality regulations have been implemented in Morocco, and they will be applied to all treatment systems. In this study, we chose three cities that are located in the Saharan area characterized by an arid climate and water scarcity. They are facing the challenges of rapid urbanization and the need to improve wastewater treatment and management. Treatment performance is impacted by community water use, pond design, and climate. The performance evaluation concerns seven physicochemical parameters during the year 2020. Monitoring results showed that WSPs in this climate can achieve removal rates between 75 and 85% for organic pollution and total suspended matter, but were challenged to produce effluent quality that meets reuse standards. Performance and statistical analysis have been done and confirm the existence of correlations between these parameters and the climate of the region. For the improvement of the quality of these waters, it is legitimate to upgrade the three WSPs with a tertiary treatment with maturation ponds.
Waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) have relatively low capital, operational costs, and minimal complexity.
Arid climate and water scarcity in poor countries.
Effluent quality that meets reuse standards can be produced by WSPs.
Performance and statistical analysis have been done and confirm the existence of correlations between pollution parameters and the climate of the region.
Upgrading WSPs to meet reuse standards.