Turkey's highly know-how Mediterranean aquaculture industry is the world leader in European seabass aquaculture and the European leader in meagre aquaculture. In this study, carbon footprint (CF) values of four partial harvests of European seabass in earthen pond aquaculture (EPES) and meagre in earthen pond aquaculture (EPM) were determined. The average values of total CF expended for EPES and EPM, which reached a final harvest weight of approximately 1,500 g in 1,061 and 633 days were 3.38 and 2.26 kg CO2e kg−1, respectively. The lowest and highest rates of CF expended on consumed compound diet (CFCD) were 63.92 and 65.59% in EPES, and 62.44 and 66.70% in EPM, respectively. The rates of CF general management were 32.0 and 33.57% in EPES and 30.98 and 34.98% in EPM, respectively. Against this high proportion of the compound diet, the second highest value was the lowest and highest proportion of partial harvests of electricity, 28.20 and 29.59% in EPES and 27.09 and 30.51% in EPM, respectively. In contrast to European seabass, CF input and CF output per kg values of meagre were decreased with increasing weight, therefore meagre can be defined as a species with high global food security and resilience against climate change.

  • The carbon footprint (CF) can be used to determine climate identity.

  • While the CF expended value decreased with increasing harvesting weight of meagre, it increased in European seabass.

  • Fast-growing species may be important in combating climate change.

  • The most important inputs of earthen pond farming are compound diet and electricity.

  • Meagre aquaculture should be carefully considered by policymakers.

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