This study analyzed the impact of climate change on the hydrological conditions of the Upper Paraguay Basin, which has as its outlet the river channel in the municipality of Cáceres – Mato Grosso, Brazil, close to the plateau/Pantanal plain divide. Using the SWAT+ hydrological model and projections from the HADGEM and MIROC models, different flow scenarios were simulated under radiative concentration thresholds (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5. The results showed an average annual reduction of 44.07% in HADGEM 4.5, 51.00% in HADGEM 8.5, 37.35% in MIROC 4.5, and 39.12% in MIROC 8.5 inflows. The results are crucial for the management of water resources, the operation of the Paraguay-Paraná Waterway, and the resilience of the ecosystem, helping decision-making and management considering the predicted climate and hydrological changes.

  • Assessment of climate impact on Pantanal's main river flow.

  • HADGEM forecasts show larger reductions than MIROC.

  • Consistent Paraguay River flow decrease in all scenarios.

  • Vital contribution to water management amid climate challenges.

  • Study on Pantanal resilience to altered river flow.

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