This study has been investigated using the new criterion measuring complexity Hilbert-Huang entropy (HHE), changes, and fluctuations in groundwater levels under the influence of climate change factors and humans. In this regard, the 120-month time series of groundwater level, precipitation, temperature, and runoff parameters (period 2009–2018) are first divided into five 24-month periods, then by applying the Hilbert-Huang transform. Eachperiod is decomposed down into smaller periods, and finally, the HHE criterion measures the complexity of the time series. The examination of changes in the HHE complexity criterion shows a decrease of 2.02, 2.93, and 29.58% in the groundwater level in the second, third, and fourth periods. Also, according to the results of changes in the complexity of precipitation and temperature time series as climate change factors, these two parameters have decreased in the third and fourth periods, with the rate of decrease for the temperature time series being 18.8 and 8.3%, respectively, and for the precipitation time series is obtained by 30.6 and 4.4%, respectively. Hence, according to the results, the discharge parameter, as a human factor in the second and fourth periods, shows a decrease of 8.6 and 39.1%, respectively.

  • Temperature and precipitation parameters are considered climatic factors.

  • Runoff parameters are considered human factors.

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