This study uses the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with five different cumulus parameterization schemes (CPSs) at a resolution of 30 km to simulate the summer (June, July, and August) extreme precipitation event in the Yellow River Basin (YRB) in 2018. The goal of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of extreme precipitation simulation in the YRB during the summer of 2018 to CPSs in the WRF model. The results show that all five CPSs were capable of approximately simulating the direction of the rain bands in the YRB during the summer of 2018, but the simulation results of all CPSs tended to overestimate the value of precipitation amount. Upon further evaluation using seven different methods, it was found that the Betts–Miller–Janjic (BMJ) scheme provided the best simulation of this event. The complex orography of the YRB has a significant influence on moisture transport. The WRF model may have overestimated the moisture flux, which could have contributed to the overestimation of precipitation. The summer extreme precipitation event in the YRB during 2018 may have been influenced by an influx of excessive moisture from the western boundary.

  • This study filled the lack of study on summer extreme precipitation simulation using the WRF model in the entire Yellow River Basin (YRB).

  • This study employed seven different evaluation methods to provide a more comprehensive evaluation and concluded that the Betts–Miller–Janjic scheme had the best capability in simulating summer extreme precipitation in the YRB during 2018.

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