The abuse of antibiotics is becoming more serious as antibiotic use has increased. The sulfa antibiotics, sulfamerazine (SM1) and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ), are frequently detected in a wide range of environments. The interaction between SM1/SMZ and bacterial diversity in drinking water was investigated in this study. The results showed that after treatment with SM1 or SMZ at four different concentrations, the microbial community structure of the drinking water changed statistically significantly compared to the blank sample. At the genus level, the proportions of the different bacteria in drinking water may affect the degradation of the SM1/SMZ. The growth of bacteria in drinking water can be inhibited after the addition of SM1/SMZ, and bacterial community diversity in drinking water declined in this study. Furthermore, the resistance gene sul2 was induced by SM1 in the drinking water.