Currently guidelines for disinfection of water with free chlorine, while primarily developed for potable water, are often used for virus disinfection of nitrified recycled water of >1 NTU (Nephelometric Turbidity Unit). More information is needed on the disinfection efficacy of free chlorine for viruses in waters of varying turbidity and pH due to significant reuse of treated wastewater of varying quality. In this study, disinfection efficacy in nitrified/denitrified activated sludge treated wastewater was investigated for coxsackievirus B5 (CB5), an enterovirus known to be highly resistant to free chlorine. The required chlorine contact times (CT) values (mg.min/L) for inactivation of CB5 were established in treated wastewater at 10 °C and of varying turbidity (0.2, 2, 5 and 20 NTU) and pH (7, 8 and 9). CTs were calculated to achieve 1 to 4 log10 inactivation. Robust data is presented in support of the chlorine CT values required to inactivate a chlorine-resistant virus in a range of turbidities and pHs in treated wastewaters. The testing method used a conservative approach and the data presented have been used to develop the free chlorine virus inactivation guildelines for recycled water in Victoria and South Australia, Australia.

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