Abstract

Exposure to various endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can lead to adverse effects on reproductive physiology and behavior in both animals and humans. An adequate strategy for the prevention of environmental contamination and eliminating the effects of them must be established. Chemicals with estrogenic activity were selected, and the effectiveness of their removal during the purification processes in two drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) using riverbank infiltrated water was determined. Thirty-five water samples in two sampling campaigns throughout different seasons were collected and screened with a yeast estrogen test; furthermore, bisphenol A (BPA), 17ß-estradiol (E2) and ethinyl-estradiol (EE2) content were measured using HPLC-MS. Our results confirm that estrogenic compounds are present in sewage effluents and raw surface river water of DWTPs. Very low estrogen activity and pg/L concentrations of BPA and E2 were detected during drinking water processing and occasionally in drinking water. Based on this study, applied riverbank filtration and water treatment procedures do not seem to be suitable for the total removal of estrogenic chemicals. Local contamination could play an important role in increasing the BPA content of the drinking water at the consumer endpoint.

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