Abstract

Two liters per day is generally applied as the default drinking water intake rate for risk assessments, although evidence supporting this value is insufficient. This study aimed to reveal actual water intakes from tap water and other types of drinks, and to explore the relationships between these intakes. For this purpose, we conducted a nationwide Internet questionnaire survey. Tap water intake negatively correlated with bottled water and soft drink intakes, suggesting a mutually complementary relationship. We propose an index, potential Tap Water Intake (pTWI), calculated by adding soft drinks and bottled water to tap water intake. Mean per-capita tap water intake across the entire Japanese population was estimated at 1.28 L/d, whereas mean pTWI was estimated at 1.65 L/d. Two liters per day corresponds to the 88th percentile of tap water intake and to the 76th percentile of pTWI, and covers the intake of the majority of the population in Japan. This rate should continue being used as the default in the Japanese population, but the rate to cover the tap water intake of almost the entire population would be higher: it was >2.5 L/d.

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