Water is an indispensable commodity for the survival of all living beings and for their well-being. The objective of this work is to evaluate the level of pollution of different drinking water sources consumed and its link with health in Pelengana commune, Mali. Samples of water were taken from various sources, namely, hand pumps, boreholes, dug wells, and shallow wells for physical, chemical, heavy metals, and bacteriological analyses, using American Public Health Association (APHA) Standard Techniques. Results revealed that the nitrate-nitrogen (NO3−N) values of the water samples from the different water sources had concentrations exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (US-EPA) regulation of 10 mg/L, as well as World Health Organization Guideline for Drinking Water Quality (WHO GDWQ) (11 mg/L). The same applies to heavy metals such as Cd, Pb, and Fe, in which, concentrations exceed their allowable limits in certain locations. Moreover, apart from water samples from some different boreholes, total coliform, and Escherichia coli have been detected in all selected water sources, which indicates fecal contamination. In all, there is a pressing need to stop the consumption of drinking water from contaminated sources and to effect appropriate treatment.