Abstract

Multi-drug resistance traits of Staphylococcus species especially methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the clinical settings are well established. Of environmental concern is hospital effluents discharging into wastewaters. This article investigated the prevalence and detection of antibiotic resistance genes in Staphylococcus species from clinical and environmental sources in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Standard culture-based and molecular protocols were used. Seventy-six (27 clinical, 14 hospital effluent and 35 environmental) Staphylococcus isolates were recovered: 56.58% were coagulase-negative and 43.42% coagulase-positive (S. aureus). For the clinical isolates, 10, 6, 4, 4 and 1 were isolated from urine, skin, wounds, blood and pus, respectively. Isolates were resistant to methicillin and amoxycillin (91.7%), cloxacillin (88.0%), ciprofloxacin (84.0%), ofloxacin (83.3%), azithromycin (78.0%), ceftazidime (76.0%), gentamycin (75.0%), cefuroxime (75.0%) and erythromycin (72.0%). Nearly, all isolates (90.8%) had multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index >0.2. Overall MAR indices for Staphylococcus species isolated from the clinical, hospital effluent and environmental wastewaters were relatively similar (0.482; 0.500; 0.435). mecA, nuc and luk-pvl genes were detected in S. aureus, while mecA was detected in S. arlettae, S. sciuri, S. cohnii, S. epidermidis and S. saprophyticus. This study informs on the potential contamination of environmental waters downstream from hospitals and possible impacts that this could have on human and animal health.

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