Abstract

Groundwater is the main source of water in the study area (Rupnagar District, Punjab), and its quality is essential since it is the primary determinant of the suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation purposes. In this study, data from 28 years have been used to evaluate the adequacy of groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes and assess the potential human health impacts of nitrate contaminants. Results of sodium adsorption ratio, percentage sodium, magnesium hazard ratio, Kelley ratio, and residual sodium carbonate illustrate that most of the sampling locations were suitable for irrigational purposes and drinking water quality of the region mostly belonged to the ‘good’ class. The maximum nitrate concentration was observed in the northern and north-east parts of the area. Among the three age groups, children > female > male was found to be more prone to health risks with oral ingestion of nitrate. Uncertainties in the risk estimates were quantified using Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analyses. Thus, a proper management plan should be adopted by the decision-makers to improve the quality of drinking water in this area to avoid major health problems in the near future.

Graphical Abstract

Graphical Abstract
Graphical Abstract
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