The present study aims to investigate the occurrence of free living amoeba (FLA) in water resources (rivers and tap water) in Samsun in the Black Sea. The presence of Acanthamoeba spp. was confirmed in 98 of 192 water samples collected from 32 sites of Samsun province (Samsun centre, Terme, Carsamba, Tekkekoy, Bafra) by PCR. Acanthamoeba spp. were found in 15/36 river samples from Samsun, in 58/90 from Terme, in 12/30 from Carsamba, in 7/18 from Tekkekoy and in 6/18 from Bafra. No Acanthamoeba species were detected in tap water samples. The highest rate in river waters contaminated with Acanthamoeba species was in Terme followed by Samsun centre (41.7%), Carsamba (40%), Tekkekoy (38.9%) and Bafra districts (33.3%), respectively. The result of the subsequent sequence analysis showed Haplotype I (A. triangularis) in 5%, Haplotype II (A. polyphaga) in 29.6%, Haplotype III (Acanthamoeba spp.) in 62% and Haplotype IV (A. lenticulata) in 3%. The most common genotype was Acanthamoeba T4 (Acanthamoeba spp., A. polyphaga, A. triangularis) and T5 genotype was also found in 3%. The T4 genotype is the most common genotype associated with Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) worldwide; therefore, humans and animals living in the area are at risk after contact with such waters.

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