Anatoxin-a (ANTX-a) is a potent alkaloid neurotoxin, produced by several species of cyanobacteria and detected throughout the world. The presence of cyanotoxins, including ANTX-a, in drinking water sources is a potential risk to public health. This article presents a thorough examination of the cumulative body of research on the use of drinking water treatment technologies for extracellular ANTX-a removal, focusing on providing an analysis of the specific operating parameters required for effective treatment and on compiling a series of best-practice recommendations for owners and operators of systems impacted by this cyanotoxin. Of the oxidants used in drinking water treatment, chlorine-based processes (chlorine, chloramines and chlorine dioxide) have been shown to be ineffective for ANTX-a treatment, while ozone, advanced oxidation processes and permanganate can be successful. High-pressure membrane filtration (nanofiltration and reverse osmosis) is likely effective, while adsorption and biofiltration may be effective but further investigation into the implementation of these processes is necessary. Given the lack of full-scale verification, a multiple-barrier approach is recommended, employing a combination of chemical and non-chemical processes.
Removal of the cyanotoxin anatoxin-a by drinking water treatment processes: a review
Silvia Vlad, William B. Anderson, Sigrid Peldszus, Peter M. Huck; Removal of the cyanotoxin anatoxin-a by drinking water treatment processes: a review. J Water Health 1 December 2014; 12 (4): 601–617. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wh.2014.018
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