The aim of this study was to determine the association of cardiovascular disease (CVD) of selected human subjects with the hardness of water they consume. Laboratory testing of physical and chemical parameters of water were made using standardized methods: Standard Methods 19th edn, 1995 (APHA, AWWA & WEF, Washington, DC), and ISO 7888:1985, ISO 10523:1998. Pearson's chi-squared test was used for the statistical analysis of data, with the significance level of 0.05. The obtained data were analysed using the statistical program SPSS 16.0. The study sample consisted of 1,021 individuals divided into two groups: soft water consumers, 603 individuals, and, hard water consumers, 618 individuals. Results indicate that a statistically significant (χ2 = 5.315; df = 1; p = 0.021) number of individuals with CVD drink soft water. The prevalence of CVD in the age group 45–60 years in the study area where soft water is consumed was 21.3% and in the study area where hard water is consumed the prevalence of CVD was 13.7%. The summary results indicate significant correlation between the prevalence of CVD in the population group who drink soft water. The value of the relative risk is 1.127.
Correlation between water hardness and cardiovascular diseases in Mostar city, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Nevenka J. Knezović, Mustafa Memić, Mirela Mabić, Jasna Huremović, Ivanka Mikulić; Correlation between water hardness and cardiovascular diseases in Mostar city, Bosnia and Herzegovina. J Water Health 1 December 2014; 12 (4): 817–823. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wh.2014.129
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