Viral contamination of public waters is a leading health concern around the world, including in Minnesota where cold climate, abundant onsite systems on poor or thin soils, and abundant surface water resources present a significant risk of wastewater pathogens reaching sensitive water sources. Three alternative onsite treatment systems, a sand filter, peat filter and subsurface-flow constructed wetland (CW) at a field research site were evaluated for seasonal virus removal by seeding each with MS2 bacteriophage. The sand and peat filters and CW removed 2.7, 7.0, and 1.4 log10 of MS2, respectively, during summer and 1.8 and 6.9 log for the sand and peat filter during winter (CW not seeded). Somatic coliphage reductions for the sand filter, peat filter and CW were 2.9, 3.5, 1.0 log10 in summer, and 1.5, 2.8, 0.7 log10 during winter, respectively over a 3 year period. During this period, fecal coliform log10 reductions were 2.9, 4.6, 2.0 in summer for the sand and peat filters and CW, and 2.0, 4.6, 1.6 in winter. The peat filter was the most effective system for removing MS2, somatic coliphage and fecal coliforms during both winter and summer but all systems removed >90% of viruses throughout the year.
Seasonal virus removal by alternative onsite wastewater treatment systems
Richard P. Axler, Jerald R. Henneck, Barbara J. McCarthy, Randall E. Hicks, Matthew R. Olson; Seasonal virus removal by alternative onsite wastewater treatment systems. J Water Health 1 June 2005; 3 (2): 139–155. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wh.2005.0014
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