Samples collected every two weeks from the inlet and outlet of three sewage treatment plants were screened for the presence of noro-, rota-, astro-, adeno-, hepatitis A- and circoviruses by (RT)-nested PCR, and for F-specific bacteriophages by isolation in Escherichia coli Famp. Plants A and B were secondary treatment plants and plant C used primary treatment. Noroviruses were detected in 43%, 53% and 24% of the inlet samples and 26%, 40% and 21% of the outlet samples from plants A, B and C, respectively. Astroviruses, rotaviruses and adenoviruses were more prevalent. Adenoviruses were detected in 96% of inlet and 94% of outlet samples, supporting the potential of these viruses as indicators of viral contamination from sewage. Hepatitis A virus and circoviruses were found only rarely. Reduction of infective viral particles during sewage treatment was evaluated using F-specific bacteriophages. The phages were reduced by, respectively, 99%, 87% and 0% in plants A, B and C, which corresponded to the observed differences in reduction of norovirus positive samples between the same plants. The study shows that the high viral load in sewage results in a discharge to the environment of a large amount of virus despite sewage treatment. On the other hand, the advantage of a more advanced treatment is demonstrated.
Research Article|June 01 2006
Enteric viruses in inlet and outlet samples from sewage treatment plants
E. M.M. Berg
J Water Health (2006) 4 (2): 197-209.
M. Myrmel, E. M.M. Berg, B. Grinde, E. Rimstad; Enteric viruses in inlet and outlet samples from sewage treatment plants. J Water Health 1 June 2006; 4 (2): 197–209. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wh.2006.0016
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