Changes in the toxicity in chlorinated water after chlorine addition were examined. For toxicity evaluation, the chromosomal aberration test and the transformation test were conducted as indexes of initiation activity and promotion activity, respectively, in the carcinogenesis process. Activity inducing chromosomal aberrations in chlorinated Lake Biwa water gradually decreased over time after chlorination. In contrast, activity inducing transformations determined by the two-stage assay gradually increased. Thus, toxicity that decreases or increases is present in chlorinated water. Furthermore, activity inducing transformations determined by the non-two-stage assay gradually decreased over time. This direction of change is opposite to that of activity inducing transformations determined by the two-stage assay and is consistent with that of activity inducing chromosomal aberrations. The drastic decrease in initiation activity detected as activity inducing chromosomal aberrations could be the main cause for the decrease in activity inducing transformations determined by the non-two-stage assay (an index of the sum of initiation and promotion activity). MX change was quantitatively consistent with those of activity inducing chromosomal aberrations and transformations determined by the non-two-stage assay. On the other hand, directions of changes in concentrations of typical by-products such as chloroform were consistent only with that of activity inducing transformations determined by the two-stage assay. Findings of this study suggest that MX is appropriate as an index for comparing the carcinogenicity of tap water near and far from a water purification plant.
Research Article|December 01 2006
Reevaluation of the toxicity of chlorinated water and the usefulness of MX as an index
J Water Health (2006) 4 (4): 523-531.
Sadahiko Itoh, Atsushi Nakano, Toshiaki Araki; Reevaluation of the toxicity of chlorinated water and the usefulness of MX as an index. J Water Health 1 December 2006; 4 (4): 523–531. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wh.2006.0035
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