A workshop was held in Atlanta on July 7–8, 2005, to evaluate the epidemiologic and other information available for estimating endemic waterborne illness risks in the United States. Each paper written for this special issue was discussed and fourteen recommendations were made based on the discussion. In addition, seven major data gaps were identified as being key to reducing the uncertainty associated with a calculation of a national estimate. This summary is provided to help regulatory officials, public health professionals, and others better understand the health measures being estimated and adequacy of the current risk information. The summary also provides a blueprint for researchers interested in studying the endemic and epidemic risks of microbes in drinking water.

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