Over 1.1 billion people in the world lack access to improved drinking water. Diarrheal and other waterborne diseases cause an estimated 2.2 million deaths per year. The Safe Water System (SWS) is a proven household water treatment intervention that reduces diarrheal disease incidence in users in developing countries. Because the SWS recommends the addition of sodium hypochlorite to unfiltered water sources, concerns have been raised about the potential long-term health effects of disinfection by-products to SWS users. This study investigated the production of trihalomethanes (THMs) in water treated with sodium hypochlorite from six sources used for drinking water in western Kenya. The turbidity values of these sources ranged from 4.23 NTU to 305 NTU. THM concentrations were analysed at 1, 8, and 24 hours after addition of sodium hypochlorite. No sample exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline values for any of the four THMs: chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, or bromoform. In addition, no sample exceeded the WHO additive total THM guideline value. These results clearly show that point-of-use chlorination of a variety of realistic source waters used for drinking did not lead to THM concentrations that pose a significant health risk to SWS users.
Disinfection by-product formation and mitigation strategies in point-of-use chlorination of turbid and non-turbid waters in western Kenya
D. S. Lantagne, B. C. Blount, F. Cardinali, R. Quick; Disinfection by-product formation and mitigation strategies in point-of-use chlorination of turbid and non-turbid waters in western Kenya. J Water Health 1 March 2008; 6 (1): 67–82. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wh.2007.013
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