Disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water represent a public health issue and a challenge for epidemiology to provide evidence towards the causation of various hypothesized health effects. Validation of a biomarker of exposure to DBPs is a strategy to achieve progress which has been advocated. The objective of this study was to validate urinary trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) excretion as a biomarker of exposure to DBPs in an experimental exposure cohort. A total of 52 healthy women participated in the study. Participants consumed supplied tap water for 15 d and provided urine and blood samples for TCAA measurements. The findings revealed that (1) background levels of TCAA in urine and blood were readily detectable, (2) TCAA levels in blood and urine increased with increased amounts of TCAA ingested, (3) the correlations between measurements of TCAA ingestion and urinary excretion were modest (r=0.66, p<0.001) based on one days' sampling and high (r=0.77–0.83, p<0.001) based on two to four days' sampling, (4) the correlations between measurements of TCAA ingestion and blood TCAA concentration were high (r=0.80, p<0.001) and (5) multiple days' urinary TCAA measures improved the prediction of TCAA ingestion through urinary TCAA excretion. TCAA can be a valid biomarker of exposure for DBPs in drinking water.
Validation of urinary trichloroacetic acid as a biomarker of exposure to drinking water disinfection by-products
Weiping Zhang, Stephan Gabos, Donald Schopflocher, Xing-Fang Li, Wendy P. Gati, Steve E. Hrudey; Validation of urinary trichloroacetic acid as a biomarker of exposure to drinking water disinfection by-products. J Water Health 1 September 2009; 7 (3): 359–371. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wh.2009.009
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