This work provides information about bacterial community structure in natural wastewater treatment systems treating different types of wastewater. The diversity and composition of bacterial communities associated with the rhizosphere of Typha latifolia and Salix atrocinerea were studied and compared among two different natural wastewater treatment systems, using the direct sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA codifying genes. Phylogenetic affiliations of the bacteria detected allowed us to define the main groups present in these particular ecosystems. Moreover, bacterial community structure was studied through two diversity indices. Ten identified and five non-identified phyla were found in the samples; the phylum Proteobacteria was the predominant group in the four ecosystems. The results showed a bacterial community dominated by beta-proteobacteria and a lower diversity value in the swine wastewater treatment system. The municipal wastewater treatment system presented a high diverse community in both macrophytes (Typha latifolia and Salix atrocinerea), with gamma-proteobacteria and alpha-proteobacteria, respectively, as the most abundant groups.