Abstract

This study examined the occurrence and molecular basis for antibiotic-resistant staphylococci from the wastewater treatment plant and grey-water samples in Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria. Standard microbiological techniques and molecular methods were utilized. The species identified (MALDI score >1.7) comprised S. saprophyticus (19), S. cohnii (8), S. sciuri (7), S. aureus (4), S. epidermidis (3), S. warneri (2), S. equorum (1), S. haemolyticus (1), S. nepalensis (1), S. condimenti (1), and S. pasteuri (1). Resistance to trimethoprim, tetracycline and cefoxitin were observed in 78.3% (47/60), 36.7% (22/60) and 25% (15/60) of the isolates, respectively. The rate of multidrug resistance was 53.3% (32/60) and observed in eight species from different sampling sites. Seven (S. sciuri; n = 5; S. aureus; n = 1; S. warneri; n = 1) of the 20 selected (representing the various staphylococcal species and antibiotypes) isolates were mecA-positive. Furthermore, the tetK gene was detected in nine isolates, six with dfrA, and four were positive for the dfrG gene. One S. aureus was mecA, tetK and dfrG gene positive. The study provides insights on antibiotic-resistant staphylococci from a non-clinical setting and highlights the need for active surveillance to understand the burden of antimicrobial resistance in Nigeria. This is key to improve synergy across the human, animal and environmental health sectors in Nigeria.

HIGHLIGHTS

  • The research provides information on the presence and species diversity of antibiotic-resistant staphylococci in wastewater treatment plant and grey-water in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

  • The molecular basis for antibiotic resistance in staphylococci to methicillin, tetracycline and trimethoprim was reported in the study.

  • The study reports the development of a multiplex PCR procedure for the prompt detection of tetracycline and trimethoprim resistance genes in staphylococci.

  • The study highlights the need for active antimicrobial resistance surveillance to understand the burden of antimicrobial resistance in Nigeria.

  • In addition, the study highlights the need for synergistic approach between human, animal and environmental health in overcoming the fight against antimicrobial resistance in Nigeria using the ‘One-Health’ approach.

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Author notes

Current address: Institute of Medical Microbiology, University Hospital Münster, Domagkstrasse 10, 48149 Münster, Germany

Supplementary data