Using local sources (roof runoff, stormwater, graywater, and onsite wastewater) to meet non-potable water demands can minimize potable water use in buildings and increase supply reliability. In 2017, an Independent Advisory Panel developed a risk-based framework to identify pathogen log reduction targets (LRTs) for onsite non-potable water systems (ONWSs). Subsequently, California's legislature mandated the development and adoption of regulations—including risk-based LRTs—for use in multifamily residential, commercial, and mixed-use buildings. A California Expert Panel was convened in 2021 to (1) update the LRT requirements using new, quantitative pathogen data and (2) propose treatment trains capable of meeting the updated LRTs. This paper presents the updated risk-based LRTs for multiple pathogens (viruses, protozoa, and bacteria) and an expanded set of end-uses including toilet flushing, clothes washing, irrigation, dust and fire suppression, car washing, and decorative fountains. The updated 95th percentile LRTs required for each source water, pathogen, and end-use were typically within 1-log10 of the 2017 LRTs regardless of the approach used to estimate pathogen concentrations. LRT requirements decreased with influent pathogen concentrations from wastewater to graywater to stormwater to roof runoff. Cost and footprint estimates provide details on the capital, operations and maintenance, and siting requirements for ONWS implementation.

  • Risk-based log reduction targets (LRTs) and model treatment trains were developed for onsite non-potable water systems (ONWSs) using new pathogen data.

  • Convergence of new LRTs with earlier values provides confidence for development of ONWS standards.

  • Similarity of pathogen distributions in the US, Europe, and Australia suggest LRTs could apply across a wide geographic region, though additional monitoring is recommended.

Graphical Abstract

Graphical Abstract
Graphical Abstract
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