The sensitivity of existing fouling indices of SDI (silt density index) and MFI (modified fouling index) to a change in particle concentration and properties was evaluated in this study. The MFI formula predicts an increased fouling tendency when the particle concentration increases and the particle size and density decrease. Consequently, concentration, size and density were selected as parameters to examine. For this purpose, silica particles and Aldrich humic acid (HA) were selected as target foulants because of the substantial difference in their size and density. According to this study, both SDI and MFI were sensitive to a change in particle properties of size and density, while MFI was more sensitive to a change in particle concentration than SDI. It is also found that the fouling tendency could be represented better by separate evaluation of T0 and T15 than SDI, at which the ratio of T0 and T15 is evaluated. T15 is found to be as sensitive as the MFI for both silica suspension and HA solution. The saline condition increased the fouling index. MFI and T15 were sensitive to a change in ionic strength. When inorganic and organic foulants were mixed, their relative proportion determined the fouling index values.