The present study addresses performance evaluation of a hybrid natural system comprising of settling tank, sand-gravel filter (SGF), aerated constructed wetland (ACW) and vermifilter (VF) for the treatment of domestic wastewater. The sequential batch experiments were conducted in a pilot-scale experimental set-up. The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) was varied from 20 to 120 mg/L and the hydraulic retention time (HRT) used was from 1 to 3 d. The BOD5 removal efficiency was found to be in the range 20–40%, and 40–70%, for 3 d HRT in SGF and ACW/VF, respectively. The efficiency of the system for BOD5 removal was observed to be 80–90% at 3 d HRT and the system was found to be adequate for reducing BOD5 to a value less than 20 mg/L. The effluent can be recycled and used for non-potable purposes in a household. The developed system is a potential option for the decentralized wastewater treatment.
Skip Nav Destination
Research Article| December 01 2012
Treatment of domestic wastewater by a hybrid natural system
G. R. Munavalli;
G. R. Munavalli, N. S. Pise; Treatment of domestic wastewater by a hybrid natural system. Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination 1 December 2012; 2 (4): 194–203. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wrd.2012.036
Download citation file: