Constructed wetlands (CWs) and managed aquifer recharge (MAR) represent commonly used natural treatment systems for reclamation and reuse of wastewater. However, each of these technologies have some limitations with respect to removal of different contaminants. Combining these two technologies into a hybrid CW-MAR system will lead to synergy in terms of both water quality and costs. This promising technology will help in the reduction of bacteria and viruses, trace and heavy metals, organic micropollutants, and nutrients. Use of subsurface flow CWs as pre-treatment for MAR has multiple benefits: (i) it creates a barrier for different microbial and chemical pollutants, (ii) it reduces the residence time for water recovery, and (iii) it avoids clogging during MAR as CWs can remove suspended solids and enhance the reclaimed water quality. This paper analyzes the removal of different contaminants by CW and MAR systems based on a literature review. It is expected that a combination of these natural treatment systems (CWs and MAR) could become an attractive, efficient and cost-effective technology for water reclamation and reuse.
Comparative assessment of managed aquifer recharge versus constructed wetlands in managing chemical and microbial risks during wastewater reuse: a review
A. F. Hamadeh, S. K. Sharma, G. Amy; Comparative assessment of managed aquifer recharge versus constructed wetlands in managing chemical and microbial risks during wastewater reuse: a review. Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination 1 March 2014; 4 (1): 1–8. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wrd.2013.020
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