Reclaimed water quality has largely focused on meeting standards in the treated effluent. While the focus is well placed, reclaimed water may change before it is used at dispersed locations. Reclaimed water is a perishable product with a shelf life requiring packaging (i.e., piping) and preserving (with a disinfectant) during storage to minimize deterioration in quality. It typically contains higher nutrient levels compared to potable water. Based on an online survey, the challenges were characterized into nine categories in order of importance: infrastructure, water quality, customer relations, operational, cost (pricing), capacity/supply, regulation, workforce, and miscellaneous. The first five categories accounted for 80% of the challenges raised by the industry. A review of the literature provided various remedies to these challenges which can be incorporated into best management practices for controlling potential health and aesthetic issues associated with storage and distribution of reclaimed water.
Review of the leading challenges in maintaining reclaimed water quality during storage and distribution
Patrick Jjemba, William Johnson, Zia Bukhari, Mark LeChevallier; Review of the leading challenges in maintaining reclaimed water quality during storage and distribution. Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination 1 December 2014; 4 (4): 209–237. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wrd.2014.001
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