The storm water management models were established at three spatial scales (large, medium, and small) based on a sponge city pilot area in China to explore the hydrological and environmental effects of rainfall conditions and development modes. Results showed that: (1) total runoff reduction rates increased from 26.7% to 53.9% for the rainfall event of a 2-year recurrence period as the scale increased. For 5-year and above recurrence periods, total runoff reduction rates were 19.5–49.4%. These rates increased from the small to medium scale and slightly decreased from the medium to large scale. (2) The runoff coefficients were 0.87–0.29, which decreased from the small to medium scale and were basically constant from the medium to large scale. (3) The peak flow reduction rates decreased with increased recurrence periods. The rates increased initially and then decreased at the small scale, whereas the opposite trend occurred at the medium scale. (4) The reduction rates of pollutants were negatively correlated with recurrence periods under the three spatial scales. The pollution load reduction rates were 19.5–54.7%, which increased from the small to medium scale and were basically constant from the medium to large scale.