This work reports the effects of five pipe materials on reverse osmosis (RO)-reclaimed water quality in a large pilot-scale distribution system. These materials includes cast iron (CI), cast iron with cement-mortar lining (CML), stainless steel (SS), PVC, and PE. Long-term running tests for 96 hours are conducted with water quality parameters monitored online and analyzed offline. The results showed that red water appeared in CI pipe due to iron corrosion. The pH and TDS increased during the long-term test. Alkali–silica reaction in CML pipe led to a high increase of pH from 6.3 to 11.4, and TDS from 51 to 230 mg/L. Water quality deterioration was not observed in SS, PVC, and PE pipes. Residual chlorine decay occurred in all the five material pipes with the decay rate order of CI ≫ CML > SS ≈ PVC ≈ PE. Ion concentration variation was also followed during the tests. Fe and Mn ions were detected in CI pipe and Ca, Si, Al, and S were detected in CML pipe. No detectable ion release was found in SS, PVC, and PE pipes. A kinetic model was postulated for the detected ion release with the mechanisms discussed in-depth.

  • Reclaimed water quality deterioration is checked in five pipe materials.

  • The tests are conducted in large scale reclaimed water pipe distribution systems.

  • The results are obtained from 96 hours long-term running.

  • A solid–liquid interface-based kinetic model is raised to describe the ion leaching.

In the context of increasing water shortage, reclaimed water is gradually being seen as an important water resource in cities. Thus, the proportion of reclaimed water in total water resource consumption is rising yearly (Gao et al. 2007; Cherchi et al. 2019; T/CSES 2020). Reclaimed water is now mainly used for agricultural and garden irrigation, industry, environmental protection, entertainment, groundwater supplement, and power generation (Xu et al. 2016; Cherchi et al. 2019; Dery et al. 2019; Savchenko et al. 2019). According to different application purposes, various water treatment approaches are used for water reclamation, such as coagulation, ultrafiltration, ionic exchange, biodegradation, micro-flocculation, and reverse osmosis (RO) (Mouri et al. 2013; Hooper et al. 2014). RO method, always combining with affiliated steps like pressurization and degasification, can effectively remove most of the impurities and ions in water (Shenvi et al. 2015). Due to its high purification efficiency and cost-effectiveness, the RO process has been widely used for water reclamation in recent years. However, the highly purified water after RO reclamation is still corrosive since its stability falls out of the stable range. Meanwhile, the addition of disinfection agents can further increase the corrosivity. Thus, when RO-reclaimed water is transported through the distribution system, corrosion occurs on the inner pipe wall due to the reaction between the pipe materials and the reclaimed water. Consequently, a corrosion layer will form after long-term service which causes deterioration of the water quality (Nawrocki et al. 2010; Hu et al. 2018; Zhang et al. 2019). This brings risks for the users and elevates the maintenance cost of the water supply pipe network.

Previous works have studied the water quality variation caused by cast iron (CI) in various drinking water distribution systems. In the drinking water distribution network of Paris, France, the corrosion occurrence was studied in a full-scale spatio-temporal way to monitor water quality in CI pipes (Perrin et al. 2019). Sarin et al. (2004) reported on iron release from corroded CI pipes by dissolution of corrosion scales in drinking water distribution systems in the United States. To protect the CI pipe from corrosion, cement-mortar lined pipe (i.e., CML pipe) is used. However, cement-mortar lining can dissolve to release ions in corrosive reclaimed water and impact water quality (Song et al. 2016). Stainless steel (SS) is known for its high resistance toward corrosion, and it is thus widely used in highly corrosive environments (Du et al. 2016; Lindgren et al. 2018; Cui et al. 2019). Increasing efforts have been made to clarify the water quality and SS surface interaction, since corrosion still occurs on SS during long-term service (Cui et al. 2016a; Xu et al. 2019; Zhang et al. 2019; Xu et al. 2020). Plastic pipes, such as PVC and PE, are always used for short-distance water transportation due to their low sensitivity to electrochemical corrosion and cost-effectiveness (Lee et al. 2018), whereas their low mechanical strength restrains their application for long-distance water transportation.

Up to now, few studies have aimed at comparing the impact of different pipe materials on water deterioration in reclaimed water distribution systems (Wang et al. 2012; Lee et al. 2018; Xu et al. 2020). Given the increasing production and utilization of reclaimed water, further studies on the effect of different pipe materials on reclaimed water quality are necessitated. Previous studies either conducted lab-scale experiments with controlled conditions to check the water quality variation (Zhang et al. 2015; Song et al. 2016; Wang et al. 2018), or collected components serviced for a long time in real water distribution systems to analyze the corrosion scales and postulate the formation mechanisms (Jin et al. 2015; Cui et al. 2016b; Xu et al. 2019). The lab-scale experiments cannot exactly simulate the complex conditions in the real case. Meanwhile, the analysis of pipes from the real systems cannot provide continuous information on water deterioration. Thus, the kinetics of ion leaching during the deterioration cannot be obtained. Pilot-scale running tests cannot only easily control the conditions and obtain continuous data, but also simulate the real case to a large extent.

The aim of the current study is to compare the effect of different pipe materials on the deterioration of reclaimed water and discuss the relevant materials involved. For that purpose, RO-reclaimed water quality was monitored online and measured offline in a large pilot-scale circulation pipe system made of pipe materials that included CI, CML, SS, PVC, and PE. The pH, TDS, residual chlorine, and concentration of ions were followed during long-term running tests for 96 hours, and the kinetics of iron leaching and mechanisms for the variation of the water parameters were discussed in-depth. The results from the current work are useful for the pipe material selection in reclaimed water distribution systems.

Experimental equipment

The pilot-scale circulation pipe system was composed of pipelines, circulation pump, and buffer tank fixed by a steel supporter as shown in Figure 1. The parallel pipelines contained five materials (CI, CML, SS, PVC, and PE). The pipeline arrangement of the materials was the same. The diameter of all the pipes was DN100 and the length was 120 m. A 30 L water tank was placed as the buffer of the system to avoid excessive fluctuation of hydraulic pressure.

Figure 1

The pilot-scale circulation pipe distribution system of reclaimed water.

Figure 1

The pilot-scale circulation pipe distribution system of reclaimed water.

Reclaimed water

The high-quality reclaimed water tested in this study was supplied from a reclaimed water plant in Beijing, China. This plant used a double membrane process (micro filtering + reverse osmosis, i.e., MF + RO) to treat the outlet water from a nearby wastewater treatment plant. A BW30-365FR type RO membrane was used, which can remove above 99.5% of minerals from the water. The reclaimed water quality parameters are displayed in Table 1 and the corresponding drinking water quality (acquired from the tap in the reclaimed plant) is also shown for comparison. Compared with drinking water, COD and BOD in reclaimed water were higher, but other parameters, including pH, TDS, conductivity, calcium, general hardness, and general alkalinity, were much lower. That is because the MF and RO process can remove most of the ions and suspended solids in water (Shenvi et al. 2015; Liu et al. 2018).

Table 1

Comparison of water quality for reclaimed water and drinking water

Water quality parameterReclaimed waterDrinking water
pH 6.0 7.2 
COD (mg/L) 2.09 0.8 
BOD5 (mg/L) 0.57 0.24 
TDS (mg/L) 14.6 252 
Conductivity (μS/cm) 26.2 400 
Calcium (Ca) (mg/L) 0.15 50.7 
General hardness (CaCO3) (mg/L) 1.06 227 
General alkalinity (CaCO3) (mg/L) 7.9 164 
Water quality parameterReclaimed waterDrinking water
pH 6.0 7.2 
COD (mg/L) 2.09 0.8 
BOD5 (mg/L) 0.57 0.24 
TDS (mg/L) 14.6 252 
Conductivity (μS/cm) 26.2 400 
Calcium (Ca) (mg/L) 0.15 50.7 
General hardness (CaCO3) (mg/L) 1.06 227 
General alkalinity (CaCO3) (mg/L) 7.9 164 

The running tests and sampling

The pilot-scale pipe systems were filled with reclaimed water by pumping and then sealed. The water circulation was initiated with the help of a circulating pump and kept at a stable flow rate of 1.4 m/s. During the 96 hours of tests, pH, TDS, residual chlorine, and conductivity were monitored online. Meanwhile, water sampling was conducted and saved in a fridge for further offline analysis. The offline analysis was carried out within 24 hours. A small amount of nitric acid was added into the water samples to resolve the soluble solids before analysis.

The pH value, TDS, residual chlorine, and conductivity were detected by water quality analyzers, including PHS-3C, DZS-708, DGB-402, and DDSJ-319 L meters (INESA Scientific Instrument Co., Ltd, China). The ions' concentration, including Ca, Si, Al, Fe, Mn, and S were measured by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer (PerkinElmer, USA).

In the pilot-scale circulating pipe system, reclaimed water circled along the CI, CML, SS, PVC, and PE pipes simultaneously. Before the tests, the pipes were washed by high-speed flow to remove attached impurities. The pH value has been proven to adjust the chemical balance in pipe water and thus impacts greatly on the dissolution and precipitation of ions in water; TDS is a comprehensive parameter that reflects the solids from the pipe inner wall dissolved into water. It can be seen as an indicator for water quality deterioration; residual chlorine is always added into the reclaimed water to restrain the microbial growth, so its decay rate significantly impacts on the water quality during distribution. In that respect, to clarify the impact of the five pipe materials on reclaimed water quality during the long-term tests, the pH value, TDS, and residual chlorine were followed and studied.

Variations of pH in pipes with different materials

The variation of pH values in different pipe materials are shown in Figure 2(a). In CI pipe, pH increased from 6.2 to 6.8 quickly in the initial 8 hours and then remained steady. In the initial stage, the pH increase is due to the corrosion of the inner wall of CI pipe in contact with reclaimed water (Cui et al. 2016b; Zhang et al. 2019). The dissolved oxygen in water reacted with the iron material as seen in Equations (1)–(4). With the consumption of dissolved oxygen, the water becomes anoxic and Fe3O4 could form to restrain further corrosion as shown in Equation (5):
formula
(1)
formula
(2)
formula
(3)
formula
(4)
formula
(5)
Figure 2

The variation of (a) pH, (b) TDS, and (c) residual chlorine concentration in pipes with different materials during the long-term running tests.

Figure 2

The variation of (a) pH, (b) TDS, and (c) residual chlorine concentration in pipes with different materials during the long-term running tests.

In CML pipe, the pH value of water increased greatly from 6.34 to 9 in the first 4 hours. From 4 to 42 hours, pH continued to increase at a slower rate to 11 at 42 hours. Then, it became relatively stable. During the long-term test, alkali–silica in the cement mortar reacted with water. The cement mortar contained reactants including silica in the solid state, potassium and/or sodium hydroxide and possibly calcium (Saouma et al. 2015). When subsequent cement hydrate such as ettringite was formed, the corresponding counter ion of alkalis became hydroxide (OH), leading to the increase of water pH in the CML pipe. Regarding SS, PVC, and PE pipes, the pH was almost stable during 96 hour tests, showing the corrosion resistance of these pipes (Asri et al. 2017).

Variation of TDS in different material pipes

Figure 2(b) shows the TDS variation in different pipes. In CI pipe, TDS increased from 44 to 58 mg/L in the first 4 hours, which is on account of mineral ions dissolving from the CI, as shown in Equations (3) and (4). After 4 hours, a slight decline of TDS was observed. The protective coating effect of the Fe3O4 formed on the inner wall of the CI pipe, as indicated by Equation (5), played a role in restraining the increase of TDS. Meanwhile, precipitation of some ions may occur as the result of the pH value increase, causing the decline of TDS. Regarding the CML pipe, in the first stage of 4 hours, the hydrate, hydroxide, and ions leached from the inner pipe wall into water because of the alkali–silica reaction. Thus, TDS increased from 51 to 80 mg/L. Then, a decline of TDS down to around 70 mg/L occurred until 8 hours due to the increase of pH value. From then on, TDS kept growing to 230 mg/L at the end of the 96 hour tests at high rate. This is because, on one hand, OH attacked aggregate silanol and siloxane groups and formed dissolved silica ions; on the other hand, cations in pore solution of cement mortar combined with dissolved silica ions to result in new hydrates, and increasing ions thus dissolved from cement mortar into the reclaimed water (Kleib et al. 2018; Yazici et al. 2019). In SS, PVC, and PE pipes, TDS was shown to be quite stable during the 96 hour tests.

Variation of residual chlorine in different material pipes

Figure 2(c) showed that residual chlorine decayed in all of the five kinds of pipes with different rates due to different reactions in these pipes (Hallam et al. 2002). The decay rates of the residual chlorine concentration were as the following order: CI ≫ CMI > SS ≈ PVC ≈ PE.

In CI pipe, 1.8 mg/L residual chlorine was exhausted completely at the fastest rate, within 4 hours. During this period, the residual chlorine in the reclaimed water was consumed by the oxidation and reduction reactions with CI as indicated in Equations (1) and (6) (Zhang et al. 2019):
formula
(6)

The residual chlorine decay was slower in CML pipe. During the long-term test, the concentration of residual chlorine decreased continuously from 1.8 mg/L to 0.15 mg/L. The rough inner wall of CML pipe provided anchoring sites for microbials so that the residual chlorine was consumed for disinfection (Li et al. 2019). However, the Fe-related reactions in CI pipe did not occur in CML pipe, resulting in a slower residual chlorine decay. In SS, PVC, and PE pipes, the variation of the residual chlorine concentration was even slower due to their inertia in chlorine-involving reactions. Residual chlorine decreased from 1.8 mg/L to 0.52 mg/L, 0.68 mg/L, and 0.7 mg/L in SS, PVC, and PE pipes, respectively.

Residual chlorine decay curve fitted well with the second order kinetic equation. The kinetic rate constants with the correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.90) are shown in Table 2. As can be seen, the rate constant of residual decay in CI pipe was over 69 times higher than other pipes. The rate constant of CML pipe ranked in second place followed by SS pipe. The constants in PVC and PE were similar and were all very low since the pipe materials were both plastic-based.

Table 2

Second order kinetic rate constants of residual decay in reclaimed water in different pipe materials

CICMLSSPVCPE
k (mg/(L min)) 2.443 0.0352 0.0163 0.0085 0.0071 
R2 0.91 0.92 0.99 0.97 0.90 
CICMLSSPVCPE
k (mg/(L min)) 2.443 0.0352 0.0163 0.0085 0.0071 
R2 0.91 0.92 0.99 0.97 0.90 

Ion concentration increase in different material pipes

The variation of pH value, TDS, and residual chlorine analysis indicated that the water quality was affected to different extents in various pipe materials during the long-term running tests. This variation was on account of ion leaching from the pipe inner wall. The concentration of ions in the reclaimed water at 49 hours are shown in Table 3 during the long-term running tests in the five pipe materials. It can be seen that Fe and Mn ions were detected in CI pipe, and Ca and Si were found in CML pipe. No Fe ions were detected in SS, PVC, and PE pipes. The results so far showed that SS, PVC, and PE pipes were relatively stable and did not cause obvious deterioration of reclaimed water quality during the long-term tests, whereas CI and CML pipes showed a more remarkable influence on the water quality. Thus, the ion concentration increases in CI and CML pipes were studied in-depth.

Table 3

Ion concentration in different pipe materials at 49 hours

Ions (mg/L)CISSCMLPVCPE
Fe 50 a – – – 
Mn 0.24 – – – – 
Cr – – – – – 
Ni – – – – – 
Ca – – 26.16 – – 
Si – – 9.32 – – 
Al – – 1.93 – – 
Sulfate – – 1.18 – – 
Ions (mg/L)CISSCMLPVCPE
Fe 50 a – – – 
Mn 0.24 – – – – 
Cr – – – – – 
Ni – – – – – 
Ca – – 26.16 – – 
Si – – 9.32 – – 
Al – – 1.93 – – 
Sulfate – – 1.18 – – 

a–, not detected.

Ion concentration increase in water sample of CI and CML pipe

The variation of total Fe and Mn concentration in CI pipe is shown in Figure 3(a). The Fe ion concentration reached around 50 mg/L within the first hour and fluctuated greatly afterwards during the long-term test. The manganese ion was lower, and it kept growing continuously to a balance concentration of 0.25 mg/L at around 48 hours. Red water was observed in CI pipe during the long-term test. The corrosivity of reclaimed water led to ion leaching from the CI pipe inner wall. The leached ions formed precipitation gradually at the function of dissolved oxygen and increasing pH value (Equations (1)–(4)). The precipitation fell off from the pipe inner wall by the water flow and formed the turbid red water during the long-term running test (Cui et al. 2016b).

Figure 3

Iron concentration in CI (a) and CML (b) pipes during the 96 hours' long-term running tests.

Figure 3

Iron concentration in CI (a) and CML (b) pipes during the 96 hours' long-term running tests.

The concentrations of Ca, Si, Al, and S ions during the long-term tests are shown in Figure 3(b). The ion concentrations increased in the beginning and reached balance concentration of 41.3 mg/L, 12.2 mg/L, 1.21 mg/L, and 1.25 mg/L for Ca, Si, Al, and S ions at around 64 hours. The appearance of these ions indicated that components of cement dissolved into water. The components included hydrated calcium silicate, calcium hydroxide, calcium aluminate hydrate, and calcium sulfoaluminate hydrate. The following reactions occurred resulting in the increase of ion concentration (Kleib et al. 2018). The dissolution of these components raised pH and TDS.
formula
(7)
formula
(8)
formula
(9)
formula
(10)

Kinetic model for ion leaching in CI and CML pipes

The processes of different ions leaching from the inner wall of CI and CML pipe into the reclaimed water were complicated. In the current study, a simplified apparent kinetic model including three stages was used for describing ion leaching (Figure 4): (1) the elements in the crystal on the pipe inner wall dissolved into the solid–liquid interface layer and became ions; (2) ions were transported in the solid–liquid interface layer toward the water body due to the concentration difference; and (3) ions continuously moved into the reclaimed water body and the ion concentration in the water body increased.

Figure 4

Ion leaching process from pipe inner wall into reclaimed water.

Figure 4

Ion leaching process from pipe inner wall into reclaimed water.

The rate-determining step in the process was the ions' transportation in the interface layer (stage 2). Based on Fick's law, the following equations can be given to describe the ion leaching:
formula
(11)
formula
(12)
formula
(13)
formula
(14)
where J is the diffusion flux; D is the diffusion coefficient; Cs is the dissolved equilibrium concentration of ion; C is the ion concentration in the reclaimed water body at time t; S is the surface area of the pipe inner wall; M is the ion mass passing through the unit area S within a time t; h is the thickness of the solid–liquid interface layer; and V is the volume of water body. This model was based on the following assumptions: (a) pipe inner wall started quickly to dissolve; (b) no ion concentration difference existed in the reclaimed water body; (c) the ion concentration in the layer near the surface of the solid pipe inner wall reached saturation; and (d) the critical water layer is a stable water layer with a stable thickness of h.
Equations (11)–(14) can be comprehensively rewritten as Equation (15):
formula
(15)
Since D, S, V, and h are all constants, DS/Vh can be substituted by k′, thus, Equation (15) can be rewritten as Equation (16):
formula
(16)

The kinetic plots for Fe and Mn ion leaching in CI pipe and Ca, Si, Al, and S leaching in CML pipe are shown in Figure 5. The corresponding k′ values and R2 are also included. Looking at the R2, Mn ion in CI pipe and Si and Al ions in CML pipe fitted well with the kinetic model (R2 > 0.9). However, Fe ion in CI pipe did not fit the kinetic model used in the current study given the low R2 value. This was due to the complicated behavior of Fe corrosion and Fe ion leaching during the long-term test, and thus resulting in the great fluctuation of Fe ion concentration (Figure 3). This required further study to postulate a more detailed and precise model for Fe ion leaching during long-term pilot-scale tests.

Figure 5

Kinetic plots of ion leaching.

Figure 5

Kinetic plots of ion leaching.

The current work studied the water quality deterioration in five different pipe materials for the transportation of RO-reclaimed water in large pilot-scale distribution systems. Alkali–silica reaction took place in the CML pipe, leading to a great increase of pH and TDS values. The pH and TDS value fluctuation extent in CI pipe ranked second among the five materials. These two values were quite stable in SS, PVC, and PE pipes, showing their corrosion resistance in RO-reclaimed water. Residual chlorine decay was observed in all the five pipe materials according to an order of C I ≫ CMI > SS ≈ PVC ≈ PE. The residual chlorine decay fitted with the second order kinetic equation with the decay rate being 2.443, 0.0352, 0.0163, 0.0085, and 0.0071 mg/(L min), respectively. No detectable ion leaching was observed in SS, PVC, and PE pipes. Fe and Mn ions were found in CI pipe and Ca, Si, Al, and S ions were detected in CML pipe. A simplified kinetic model was postulated to describe the ion leaching process. This model did not fit with the Fe leaching since the Fe ion fluctuated greatly during the long-term tests.

The results from this work indicated that SS, PVC, and PE pipes were resistant to corrosion in the RO-reclaimed water and caused a relatively low extent of water quality deterioration. Future studies are encouraged to consider comprehensively the ion release, residual chlorine decay as well as the mechanical strength. That may provide further knowledge on the pipe material selection for reclaimed water transportation, helping to achieve a cleaner production of reclaimed water.

We are grateful for the support of China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2018M631495), National Natural Science Foundation of China (51808312, 51879139).

Data cannot be made publicly available; readers should contact the corresponding author for details.

Asri
N. F.
,
Husaini
T.
,
Sulong
A. B.
,
Majlan
E. H.
&
Daud
W. R. W.
2017
Coating of stainless steel and titanium bipolar plates for anticorrosion in PEMFC: a review
.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
42
(
14
),
9135
9148
.
Cherchi
C.
,
Kesaano
M.
,
Badruzzaman
M.
,
Schwab
K.
&
Jacangelo
J. G.
2019
Municipal reclaimed water for multi-purpose applications in the power sector: a review
.
Journal of Environmental Management
236
,
561
570
.
Cui
Y.
,
Liu
S.
,
Smith
K.
,
Hu
H.
,
Tang
F.
,
Li
Y.
&
Yu
K.
2016a
Stainless steel corrosion scale formed in reclaimed water: characteristics, model for scale growth and metal element release
.
Journal of Environmental Sciences
48
,
79
91
.
Cui
Y.
,
Liu
S.
,
Smith
K.
,
Yu
K.
,
Hu
H.
,
Jiang
W.
&
Li
Y.
2016b
Characterization of corrosion scale formed on stainless steel delivery pipe for reclaimed water treatment
.
Water Research
88
,
816
825
.
Cui
Z.
,
Chen
S.
,
Dou
Y.
,
Han
S.
,
Wang
L.
,
Man
C.
,
Wang
X.
,
Chen
S.
,
Cheng
Y. F.
&
Li
X.
2019
Passivation behavior and surface chemistry of 2507 super duplex stainless steel in artificial seawater: influence of dissolved oxygen and pH
.
Corrosion Science
150
,
218
234
.
Dery
J. L.
,
Rock
C. M.
,
Goldstein
R. R.
,
Onumajuru
C.
,
Brassill
N.
,
Zozaya
S.
&
Suri
M. R.
2019
Understanding grower perceptions and attitudes on the use of nontraditional water sources, including reclaimed or recycled water, in the semi-arid Southwest United States
.
Environmental Research
170
,
500
509
.
Gao
X.
,
Wu
X. Q.
,
Zhang
Z. E.
,
Guan
H.
&
Han
E. H.
2007
Characterization of oxide films grown on 316l stainless steel exposed to H2O2-containing supercritical water
.
Journal of Supercritical Fluids
42
(
1
),
157
163
.
Hallam
N. B.
,
West
J. R.
,
Forster
C. F.
,
Powell
J. C.
&
Spencer
I.
2002
The decay of chlorine associated with the pipe wall in water distribution systems
.
Water Research
36
(
14
),
3479
3488
.
Kleib
J.
,
Aouad
G.
,
Louis
G.
,
Zakhour
M.
,
Boulos
M.
,
Rousselet
A.
&
Bulteel
D.
2018
The use of calcium sulfoaluminate cement to mitigate the alkali silica reaction in mortars
.
Construction and Building Materials
184
,
295
303
.
Lindgren
M.
,
Huttunen-Saarivirta
E.
,
Peltola
H.
,
Romu
J.
,
Sarikka
T.
,
Hanninen
H.
&
Pohjanne
P.
2018
Crevice corrosion of stainless steels 904l, 2205, and 2507 in high-temperature sulfuric acid solution containing chlorides: influence of metal cations
.
Corrosion
74
(
2
),
225
240
.
Liu
R.
,
Raman
A. K. Y.
,
Shaik
I.
,
Aichele
C.
&
Kim
S.-J.
2018
Inorganic microfiltration membranes incorporated with hydrophilic silica nanoparticles for oil-in-water emulsion separation
.
Journal of Water Process Engineering
26
,
124
130
.
Nawrocki
J.
,
Raczyk-Stanislawiak
U.
,
Swietlik
J.
,
Olejnik
A.
&
Sroka
M. J.
2010
Corrosion in a distribution system: steady water and its composition
.
Water Research
44
(
6
),
1863
1872
.
Saouma
V. E.
,
Martin
R. A.
,
Hariri-Ardebili
M. A.
&
Katayama
T.
2015
A mathematical model for the kinetics of the alkali-silica chemical reaction
.
Cement and Concrete Research
68
,
184
195
.
Sarin
P.
,
Snoeyink
V. L.
,
Bebee
J.
,
Jim
K. K.
,
Beckett
M. A.
,
Kriven
W. M.
&
Clement
J. A.
2004
Iron release from corroded iron pipes in drinking water distribution systems: effect of dissolved oxygen
.
Water Research
38
(
5
),
1259
1269
.
Savchenko
O. M.
,
Kecinski
M.
,
Li
T.
&
Messer
K. D.
2019
Reclaimed water and food production: cautionary tales from consumer research
.
Environmental Research
170
,
320
331
.
Shenvi
S. S.
,
Isloor
A. M.
&
Ismail
A. F.
2015
A review on RO membrane technology: developments and challenges
.
Desalination
368
,
10
26
.
Song
Y.
,
Tian
Y.
,
Zhao
X.
,
Guo
H.
&
Zhang
H.
2016
Corrosion process of ductile iron with cement mortar linings as coatings in reclaimed water
.
International Journal of Electrochemical Science
11
(
8
),
7031
7047
.
T/CSES
2020
Guidelines for Water Reuse – Reclaimed Water Classification and Marking
.
Chinese Society for Environmental Sciences
,
China
.
Xu
M.
,
Bai
X.
,
Pei
L.
&
Pan
H.
2016
A research on application of water treatment technology for reclaimed water irrigation
.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
41
(
35
),
15930
15937
.
Xu
X.
,
Liu
S.
,
Liu
Y.
,
Smith
K.
,
Wang
X.
,
Li
J.
,
Ma
Z.
,
Wang
Z.
&
Cui
Y.
2020
Water quality induced corrosion of stainless steel valves during long-term service in a reverse osmosis system
.
Journal of Environmental Sciences
89
,
218
226
.
Yazici
H.
,
Beglarigale
A.
,
Felekoglu
K. T.
&
Turkel
S.
2019
Comparing the alkali-silica reaction mitigation potential of admixtures by using different accelerated test methods
.
Construction and Building Materials
197
,
597
614
.
Zhang
H.
,
Tian
Y.
,
Wan
J.
&
Zhao
P.
2015
Study of biofilm influenced corrosion on cast iron pipes in reclaimed water
.
Applied Surface Science
357
,
236
247
.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence (CC BY 4.0), which permits copying, adaptation and redistribution, provided the original work is properly cited (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).