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low-income countries

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Journal Articles
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development washdev2018096.
Published: 07 December 2018
...Joshua Mchenga; Rochelle H. Holm AbstractFor fecal sludge from households in low- and middle-income countries to be treated offsite it needs to be removed, which can be greatly affected by the pit latrine floor design. However, it is unclear whether precast pit latrine concrete floors (latrine...
Journal Articles
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development washdev2018272.
Published: 07 November 2018
.... , Slaymaker T. & Bartram J. 2014 Fecal contamination of drinking-water in low-and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis . PLoS Med. 11 , e1001644 . Fewtrell L. & Bartram J. 2013 Water Quality: Guidelines, Standards and Health: Assessment...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination jwrd2018049.
Published: 25 October 2018
... alternative water resources, relatively low-cost, reclaimed water is used in many areas of China ( Yi et al. 2011 ). Many recently constructed wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and water reclamation plants now supply reclaimed water for various applications, such as industrial cooling water, agricultural...
Journal Articles
Journal of Water and Health wh2018079.
Published: 16 October 2018
... managed ( Scott et al. 2004 ; Randolph et al. 2007 ; Sommer 2013 ). The situation is particularly problematic in low-income countries, where wastewater is poorly treated or not treated at all ( Scott et al. 2004 ) and sanitisation of manure is poorly controlled or unregulated ( Randolph et al...
Journal Articles
Journal: Water Policy
Water Policy wp2018115.
Published: 08 October 2018
... scarcity and security of the region are manifested by the political economy and the development trajectory of the region which is similar to that of many mountain towns in the EHR. Studies which inaccurately describe the water crisis as a paradox imply a mismatch in low levels of water available to the...
Journal Articles
Water Science and Technology (25 September 2018) 78 (6): 1249–1259.
Published: 25 September 2018
... simultaneous hydrolysis and acidification by hydrolytic and acidogenic bacteria in the feed buffer tank, reflected in low pH at the bottom of the buffer tank and formation of VFA. Acetate was the prime VFA constituent in the buffer tank, as well as in the different parts of the reactors and effluents. The...
Journal Articles
Water Science and Technology wst2018401.
Published: 17 September 2018
... , and is the initial tracer concentration. The world is facing a global sanitation crisis in regards to wastewater management. About 70% of wastewater is treated in high-income countries, 38% in upper-middle-income, 28% in lower-middle-income, and only 8% in low-income countries ( Sato et al. 2013...
Journal Articles
Journal: Water Policy
Water Policy wp2018138.
Published: 03 September 2018
.... Even though not all customers who utilize the services of water vendors are poor ( Komives et al ., 2001 ), in many cities, it is the low-income households that are worst served by the utility and most dependent on the private water vendors ( Pangare & Pangare, 2008 ; Banerjee & Morella, 2011...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
Journal: Water Policy
Water Policy (17 July 2018) 20 (5): 871–884.
Published: 17 July 2018
.../low- and middle-income countries) Estimated consumptive water use (litres per person per day) 1961 3 1,002/2.75 2,194 1,856 338 82/57 2,280 2011 7.1 1,321/3.62 2,868 a 2,362 507 100/67 3,209 2050 9.8 1,450 / 3.97 3,000 2,410 640 110/80 3,760 2100...
Journal Articles
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development washdev2018031.
Published: 09 July 2018
... and Hygiene in Health Care Facilities Status in low- and Middle-Income Countries and way Forward . WHO , Geneva . WHO & UNICEF 2006 Core Questions on Drinking-Water and Sanitation for Household Surveys . WHO and UNICEF , Geneva and New York . Retrieved from https://washdata.org...
Journal Articles
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development (28 June 2018) 8 (3): 386–401.
Published: 28 June 2018
... with disability face significant challenges when there are inadequate WASH systems. Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs) have some of the lowest levels of improved WASH systems on earth. The aim of this review was to document the characteristics and effectiveness of approaches to improve...
Journal Articles
Journal of Water and Climate Change (21 June 2018) 9 (3): 500–511.
Published: 21 June 2018
... cotton has a low sensitivity to drought. The dataset comprises of cross-sectional primary farm-level data collected with the aid of structured questionnaires from 235 farmers across the three provinces in the time period from August to October 2015. Most of the farmers were emerging farmers. These are...
Journal Articles
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development (8 June 2018) 8 (3): 568–577.
Published: 08 June 2018
... et al. 2000 ). Despite these facts, there is typically no proper faecal sludge management system in place for most urban areas in low income countries ( Strande 2014 ). Pit latrines are one of the commonest basic forms of improved onsite sanitation systems worldwide. Of the 2.7 billion people using...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
Water Practice and Technology (1 June 2018) 13 (2): 312–320.
Published: 01 June 2018
... to find permanent and suitable solutions for remote, low income and/or individual consumers, than those that can be implemented by/for higher income or bulk consumers, it remains a challenge to find the most economically justifiable solution in each circumstance. Most rural water users base their...
Journal Articles
Journal of Water and Health (30 May 2018) 16 (4): 646–656.
Published: 30 May 2018
.../licenses/by/4.0/ ). beverages Escherichia coli government regulation and oversight potable water water quality Packaged drinking water consumption is growing rapidly in West Africa and in other low- and lower-middle-income countries ( Rodwan 2014 ). Unlike in high-income countries, this growth in...
Journal Articles
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development (30 May 2018) 8 (3): 359–373.
Published: 30 May 2018
... inadequate attention is being paid to the importance of awareness generation and behaviour change communication (see, for example, Kapur & Aggrawal n.d. ; Kapur & Bordoloi n.d. ; Kapur & Iyer n.d. ; Kapur et al. n.d. ). The low expenditure on IEC is surprising, particularly considering...
Journal Articles
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development (23 May 2018) 8 (3): 546–555.
Published: 23 May 2018
..., sanitation and hygiene programmes . Municipal Engineer 161 ( 4 ), 223 – 229 . Howe L. , Hargreaves J. & Huttly S. 2008 Issues in the construction of wealth indices for the measurement of socio-economic position in low-income countries . Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 5...
Journal Articles
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development (15 May 2018) 8 (3): 508–519.
Published: 15 May 2018
... SLR b Tri Ton 1 2,000 Medium Medium Binh Thuy 2 17,000 Low High An Phu 3 11,000 High Low a Approximated based on average flood depth, average flood duration, climate predictions, and major flood events. See text below. b According to Wassmann et al. (2004) . Each...
Journal Articles
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development (20 April 2018) 8 (3): 439–448.
Published: 20 April 2018
... samples collected from those ponds was very high. As shown in Figure 1(b) , ammonia concentrations were much greater for surface water compared to shallow wells and deep wells. On the other hand, nitrate levels were higher in shallow and deep wells while the concentrations of ammonia and nitrite were low...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
Journal of Water and Health (20 April 2018) 16 (3): 487–490.
Published: 20 April 2018
... 2010 ). However, it is estimated that 38% of protected water sources in low- and middle-income countries are contaminated with faecal indicator bacteria (FIB; organisms that indicate that water has been contaminated with human or animal faeces, e.g., Escherichia, Salmonella , etc.) ( Bain et al...
Includes: Supplementary data