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low-income countries

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Journal Articles
Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination jwrd2019058.
Published: 05 February 2019
... hygiene solutions in low-income societies ( Foxon et al. 2004 ). According to Musazura et al. (2015) , the ABR effluent comprises nutrients (potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen) which are significant for growth of crops. Further treatment of the ABR effluent is undertaken by passing it through two...
Journal Articles
Water Practice and Technology wpt2019001.
Published: 21 January 2019
... al. 2013 ) provide various available hydrokinetic turbines and blade options in today's market. For low head & shallow depth, VATT is a better option. VATT is more sensitive to cavitation, because it's working principle is based on lift type design ( Bahaj et al. 2007 ). The projected water...
Journal Articles
Water Science and Technology (10 January 2019) 78 (12): 2437–2448.
Published: 10 January 2019
... rural areas, but also the majority of urban dwellers in low- and middle-income countries ( Peal et al. 2014 ). Most developing cities have insufficient infrastructure to manage and treat the fecal sludge, defined as excreta and blackwater, with or without greywater, accumulated in onsite sanitation...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development washdev2018102.
Published: 12 December 2018
... M. , Rosa G. , Fuller J. , Eisenberg J. N. S. & Clasen T. 2014 The geographic and demographic scope of shared sanitation: an analysis of national survey data from low-and middle-income countries . Tropical Medicine & International Health 19 ( 11 ), 1334...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
Journal of Water and Health (12 December 2018) 17 (1): 172–178.
Published: 12 December 2018
... sanitation water Previous works have largely overlooked possible associations between water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) conditions with the incidence of fatal and non-fatal drowning. While the World Health Organization estimated that 74% of drowning events in low- and middle-income countries was...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
Water Science and Technology: Water Supply ws2018190.
Published: 11 December 2018
... include the inland location, relatively low depth (53 m on average), limited exchange of waters with the Atlantic Ocean, significant inflow of river waters and rainwater and finally a large number of inhabitants in the watershed. It is estimated that the total water exchange time is about 25–30 years...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development washdev2018096.
Published: 07 December 2018
...Joshua Mchenga; Rochelle H. Holm AbstractFor fecal sludge from households in low- and middle-income countries to be treated offsite it needs to be removed, which can be greatly affected by the pit latrine floor design. However, it is unclear whether precast pit latrine concrete floors (latrine...
Journal Articles
Water Practice and Technology (1 December 2018) 13 (4): 932–946.
Published: 01 December 2018
... researchers have indicated that the high initial cost of constructing digesters is a major challenge to its adoption in Africa, where many people are within or below the low income group level ( Karekezi 2002 ; Amigun & Blottnitz 2010 ; Bensah & Brew-Hamond 2010 ; Smith 2011 ; Mulinda et al...
Journal Articles
Water Practice and Technology (1 December 2018) 13 (4): 965–979.
Published: 01 December 2018
.../Kwaku_Boakye_Apau.pdf (accessed June 27, 2018) . Appiah-Effah E. , Nyarko K. B. , Gyasi S. F. & Awuah E. 2014 Faecal sludge management in low income areas: a case study of three districts in the Ashanti region of Ghana . Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development 4...
Journal Articles
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development washdev2018272.
Published: 07 November 2018
.... , Slaymaker T. & Bartram J. 2014 Fecal contamination of drinking-water in low-and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis . PLoS Med. 11 , e1001644 . Fewtrell L. & Bartram J. 2013 Water Quality: Guidelines, Standards and Health: Assessment...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination jwrd2018049.
Published: 25 October 2018
... alternative water resources, relatively low-cost, reclaimed water is used in many areas of China ( Yi et al. 2011 ). Many recently constructed wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and water reclamation plants now supply reclaimed water for various applications, such as industrial cooling water, agricultural...
Journal Articles
Journal of Water and Health (16 October 2018) 16 (6): 980–990.
Published: 16 October 2018
.... 2007 ; Sommer 2013 ). The situation is particularly problematic in low-income countries, where wastewater is poorly treated or not treated at all ( Scott et al. 2004 ) and sanitisation of manure is poorly controlled or unregulated ( Randolph et al. 2007 ). Thus, the use of wastewater and manure in...
Journal Articles
Journal: Water Policy
Water Policy wp2018115.
Published: 08 October 2018
... around them, we observed that the higher the number of resources households had access to, the more secure they felt, i.e. the more varied a water bundle was, the more secure a household felt because they could have an array of resources to turn to if they had insufficient water. With the low frequency...
Journal Articles
Water Science and Technology (25 September 2018) 78 (6): 1249–1259.
Published: 25 September 2018
... simultaneous hydrolysis and acidification by hydrolytic and acidogenic bacteria in the feed buffer tank, reflected in low pH at the bottom of the buffer tank and formation of VFA. Acetate was the prime VFA constituent in the buffer tank, as well as in the different parts of the reactors and effluents. The...
Journal Articles
Water Science and Technology (17 September 2018) 78 (9): 1879–1892.
Published: 17 September 2018
... 70% of wastewater is treated in high-income countries, 38% in upper-middle-income, 28% in lower-middle-income, and only 8% in low-income countries ( Sato et al. 2013 ). On the other hand, most of these low-income and lower-middle-income counties are located either in subtropical or tropical regions...
Journal Articles
Journal: Water Policy
Water Policy wp2018138.
Published: 03 September 2018
.... Even though not all customers who utilize the services of water vendors are poor ( Komives et al ., 2001 ), in many cities, it is the low-income households that are worst served by the utility and most dependent on the private water vendors ( Pangare & Pangare, 2008 ; Banerjee & Morella, 2011...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
Journal: Water Policy
Water Policy (17 July 2018) 20 (5): 871–884.
Published: 17 July 2018
.../low- and middle-income countries) Estimated consumptive water use (litres per person per day) 1961 3 1,002/2.75 2,194 1,856 338 82/57 2,280 2011 7.1 1,321/3.62 2,868 a 2,362 507 100/67 3,209 2050 9.8 1,450 / 3.97 3,000 2,410 640 110/80 3,760 2100...
Journal Articles
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development (9 July 2018) 8 (4): 595–606.
Published: 09 July 2018
... . WHO 2009 Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Standards for Schools in Low-Cost Settings ( Adams J. , Bartram J. , Chartier Y. & Sims J. , eds). WHO , Geneva . WHO 2015 Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Health Care Facilities Status in Low- and Middle-Income Countries...
Journal Articles
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development (28 June 2018) 8 (3): 386–401.
Published: 28 June 2018
... with disability face significant challenges when there are inadequate WASH systems. Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs) have some of the lowest levels of improved WASH systems on earth. The aim of this review was to document the characteristics and effectiveness of approaches to improve...
Journal Articles
Journal of Water and Climate Change (21 June 2018) 9 (3): 500–511.
Published: 21 June 2018
... cotton has a low sensitivity to drought. The dataset comprises of cross-sectional primary farm-level data collected with the aid of structured questionnaires from 235 farmers across the three provinces in the time period from August to October 2015. Most of the farmers were emerging farmers. These are...