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low-income countries

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Journal Articles
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development washdev2019179.
Date Online: 15 May 2019
... of Harare in Zimbabwe . International Open & Distance Learning Journal 1 ( 3 ), 82 – 88 . Rosa G. & Clasen T. 2010 Estimating the scope of household water treatment in low- and medium-income countries . The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 82 ( 2...
Journal Articles
Journal: Water Policy
Water Policy wp2019229.
Date Online: 09 May 2019
... for repair, maintenance, and supply, and the glaring inequity between the higher, middle, and lower income groups are the immediate issues around water in Kalimpong. The spring sources that supply drinking water to Kalimpong and Singtam need immediate conservation measures to arrest the declining...
Journal Articles
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development (4 April 2019) 9 (2): 210–224.
Date Online: 04 April 2019
... (e.g. coffee husk, rice husk, and sawdust) are conventionally used as a solid fuel in many industries in low- and middle-income countries. Solid fuel products can be either in carbonized or non-carbonized forms. Carbonization is often used to convert dried biomass (e.g. wood) into a fuel that more...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development (2 April 2019) 9 (2): 198–209.
Date Online: 02 April 2019
... major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in low- and middle-income countries ( Black et al. 2010 ). In addition to being ranked as the fourth leading cause of death for children under 5 years ( GBD 2015 ), child diarrhoea morbidity has not decreased since the 1980s, persisting at 2–3...
Journal Articles
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development washdev2019048.
Date Online: 28 March 2019
...; Bartram J. 2014 Fecal contamination of drinking-water in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis . PLoS Medicine 11 ( 5 ), 1 – 23 . Boamah V. E. , Gbedema S. Y. , Adu F. & Ofori-Kwakye K. 2011 Microbial quality of household...
Journal Articles
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development (20 March 2019) 9 (2): 289–299.
Date Online: 20 March 2019
... properly cited ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ ). anaerobic digestion biogas production co-digestion informal settlements UDDT faeces As an innovative solution to enhance sanitary conditions in informal settlements in low income countries, urine diverting dehydrating...
Journal Articles
Water Science and Technology (20 March 2019) 79 (6): 1051–1059.
Date Online: 20 March 2019
... senescence, which in this case could have reasonably contributed to internal nutrient release along the system ( Adyel et al. 2016 ). PAHs monitored during II and III periods were in very low concentrations (0.006 μg L −1 ±0.003) with a reduction of 40% (±23) already at the pond outlet. As previously...
Journal Articles
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development (15 March 2019) 9 (2): 187–197.
Date Online: 15 March 2019
... the relation between the implementation of pro-poor water services and the equity of access. Pro-poor water services comprise a set of technological, financial and organisational measures employed by utilities in developing countries to improve service provision to low-income areas. In practice, the...
Journal Articles
Journal of Water and Climate Change jwc2019109.
Date Online: 12 March 2019
... livestock, shortage of drinking water, low yields and shortage of seeds for subsequent cultivation ( Mpandeli 2014 ). Tshibalo & Olivier (2010) corroborate that rainfall paucity is the most common climate hazard in Sagole community. The main impacts of prolonged erratic rainfall in the study area are...
Journal Articles
Journal of Water and Health (1 March 2019) 17 (2): 308–317.
Date Online: 01 March 2019
... drinking water treatment low-income country recontamination safe storage Sustainable Development Goal 6 calls for universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all by 2030 ( UN 2015 ). Water kiosks are increasingly being established as a strategy to improve access to...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development (25 February 2019) 9 (2): 338–347.
Date Online: 25 February 2019
... drains and peri-urban fields. Safe fecal management is an urgent need, not only in India but for an estimated 1.8 billion people in low- and middle-income countries ( Berendes et al. 2017 ). State and national policies have responded to this need, promoting safe handling guidelines and innovative...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development (25 February 2019) 9 (2): 374–379.
Date Online: 25 February 2019
... . Environmental Processes 2 , 261 – 274 . DOI:10.1007/s40710-015-0060-z . Parkinson J. & Tayler K. 2003 Decentralized wastewater management in peri-urban areas in low-income countries . Environment and Urbanisation 15 , 75 – 89 . Paterson C. , Mara D. & Curtis...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development (20 February 2019) 9 (2): 300–308.
Date Online: 20 February 2019
... ). Unsurprisingly, morbidity and mortality from diarrhoea is highest in low and middle income countries, and especially in sub-Saharan Africa, where the global gains made towards improving access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation have not been as pervasive ( UNICEF & WHO 2015 ). Nigeria is the...
Journal Articles
Journal: Water Policy
Water Policy wp2019203.
Date Online: 20 February 2019
... back on spring sources closer to the town as their discharge is low. This leads to competition for access to water. Residents also have to invest additional time in standing in long queues at public taps for fetching water. Fig. 12. Most critical challenges in accessing water (basin level...
Journal Articles
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development (15 February 2019) 9 (2): 380–391.
Date Online: 15 February 2019
...Nicole Weber; Molly Patrick; Arabella Hayter; Andrea L. Martinsen; Rick Gelting Abstract Healthcare facilities (HCFs) in low- and middle-income countries frequently lack water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services that are adequate to implement infection prevention and control (IPC) practices...
Journal Articles
Journal: Water Policy
Water Policy wp2019215.
Date Online: 12 February 2019
...% of the increase being concentrated in Asia and Africa ( UNDESA, 2014 ). Although rapidly urbanising, more than 61 million out of 200 million inhabitants living in the HKH region are below the poverty line ( Hunzai et al ., 2011 ) and still suffer from low incomes, lack of employment opportunities...
Journal Articles
Journal: Water Policy
Water Policy wp2019174.
Date Online: 08 February 2019
... frequency of short duration, high intensity rainfall is expected to increase in the future due to climate change. Given the limited capacity of drainage systems in South Asian cities, urban flooding and waterlogging is expected to intensify. The problem gets worse when low-lying areas are filled up for...
Journal Articles
Journal of Water and Health (6 February 2019) 17 (2): 274–286.
Date Online: 06 February 2019
... in rural areas of developing countries remains low ( IFC 2018 ). Currently, most investment in safe-water products and services in developing countries are aimed at middle- and upper-income people, who tend to live in urban areas, and have more safe-water awareness, higher income, access to...
Journal Articles
Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination (5 February 2019) 9 (2): 203–212.
Date Online: 05 February 2019
... hygiene solutions in low-income societies ( Foxon et al. 2004 ). According to Musazura et al. (2015) , the ABR effluent comprises nutrients (potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen) which are significant for growth of crops. Further treatment of the ABR effluent is undertaken by passing it through two...
Journal Articles
Water Practice and Technology (21 January 2019) 14 (1): 71–80.
Date Online: 21 January 2019
... power energy capture is highly dependent on velocity and the surface area of the blade. It increases exponentially with current speed. ( Mangold 2012 , Sørnes 2010 and Khalid et al. 2013 ) provide various available hydrokinetic turbines and blade options in today's market. For low head &amp...