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toilets;sanitation;drainage

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Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development washdev2021193.
Date Online: 07 December 2021
... sewer network. The majority (61%) rely on onsite sanitation with a toilet connected to the urban drainage network ( Frenoux et al. 2011 ; Frenoux & Tsitsikalis 2015 ). Any type of containment unit can be connected to the drainage network if the household is located within the drainage coverage...
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Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development (2021) 11 (6): 1016–1025.
Date Online: 05 October 2021
..., accessible toilets (ideally on-site) at home and in the workplace, and covered drainage. Affordable 24-h access to water near to people's homes can support frequent bathing and laundry needs, along with user-friendly infrastructure. This research highlights the hidden WASH needs of perimenopausal women...
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Journal Articles
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development washdev2021099.
Date Online: 25 October 2021
... children's faeces into an improved toilet or within a safe sanitation chain that ensured the use of at least safe toilets and safe containment–storage/treatment where sewage did not flow through an open drainage ( WHO 2018a ) as per previous studies ( Bauza & Guest 2017 ). Children who were found...
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Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development (2021) 11 (6): 994–1005.
Date Online: 24 September 2021
.... , Udert K. M. , Gounden T. G. & Buckley C. A. 2017 Urine diversion dry toilets in eThekwini Municipality, South Africa: acceptance, use and maintenance through users’ eyes . Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development 7 ( 1 ), 111 – 120 . https://doi.org/10.2166...
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Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development (2021) 11 (5): 693–705.
Date Online: 09 July 2021
... to achieve SDG 6.1.1 by 2024. Similarly, the phenomenal improvement in sanitation in the country has enabled the achievement of 98% of households having access to toilets thus realising SDG 6.2.2. The outcomes of these programmes have been discussed below. The lessons learnt from the past programmes...
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Journal Articles
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development (2021) 11 (3): 335–349.
Date Online: 02 April 2021
..., or partially digested excreta with or without the combination of gray water that originates from on-site sanitation systems, such as pit latrines, septic tanks, and dry toilets. FS resembles a solid and highly differs in characteristics and consistency ( Lindberg & Rost 2018 ). FS management (FSM...
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Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development (2021) 11 (6): 1036–1047.
Date Online: 07 October 2021
... covering environmental sanitation (including water supply, solid waste and storm water drainage) ( GIZ 2016 ). In many ways, the NUSP and the CSP have been forward-looking and are well aligned with most of the CWIS principles (Workshop 4). Despite this, over 80% of the interviewees agree that the policy...
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J Water Health jwh2021184.
Date Online: 24 November 2021
... water for handwashing IWS 326 75 25 0.58 301 75 25 0.11 286 80 20 0.06 24×7 280 77 23 279 69 31 274 73 27 Use of hand sanitizer IWS 326 95 5 0.65 301 89 11 0.75 286 80 20 0.20 24×7 280 94 6 279 88 12 274 76 24 Use of public toilets IWS 326 3...
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Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development (2020) 10 (4): 628–641.
Date Online: 06 October 2020
... to drainage/others were slightly more common types in urban settings. Simple pit toilets became more common in round 2, especially in ‘slums’. In order to understand how households make sanitation investment decisions within this context, and the consequences these decisions might have, we present...
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Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development (2021) 11 (1): 10–25.
Date Online: 25 November 2020
... shared improved latrines – individual household toilets – and dismantled the helicopter latrines. With those conditions, people's behaviour in terms of sanitation has also changed from using sea-based helicopter latrines to using the land-based shared improved latrines/individual household toilets...
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Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development (2020) 10 (2): 227–237.
Date Online: 20 April 2020
... were funding sanitation initiatives in slums. ‘ CIDI, Caritas, and Living Earth have previously funded construction of drainage channels, public toilets/latrines, protected springs among others. This has brought WASH services close to people and hence improved access and use of these services...
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Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development (2021) 11 (2): 179–194.
Date Online: 30 December 2020
... (RR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.62–0.79) after sewerage interventions, with a larger effect among areas with poor sanitation at baseline. Clasen et al. (2010) only identified one study related to the installation of toilets connected to a sewerage system and piped water. This study found that the risk...
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Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development (2020) 10 (3): 397–412.
Date Online: 09 July 2020
... publications regarding on-site sanitation technologies published in recent years reveal a variety of options including water-based solutions, urine diversion toilets ( Rieck & Muench 2011 ), composting toilets ( Berger 2011 ), and ecological sanitation (Ecosan) ( Hu et al. 2016 ), all of which have great...
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Journal Articles
J Water Health (2020) 18 (5): 741–752.
Date Online: 19 August 2020
... to be protected from outside contamination; improved sanitation was defined as a toilet facility that hygienically separates human excreta from human contact ( JMP 2012 ). During the home visits (Arm 1), the presence of a handwashing station and environmental cleanliness indicators were also observed and recorded...
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Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development (2020) 10 (4): 768–785.
Date Online: 07 September 2020
..., and land tenure are often lacking. This has triggered the development of many novel sanitation technologies and system configurations and options for faecal sludge management (FSM) as alternatives to the sewered centralized solution. Examples include urine diversion dry toilets or container-based...
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Water Sci Technol (2020) 81 (11): 2281–2290.
Date Online: 29 June 2020
... to collect water from the roofs of buildings and most probably this water was used for the toilets located on the lower floor. Generally, drains and sewers were built of dressed stones and were large enough to make it possible to be cleaned and maintained ( Angelakis 2017b ). The drainage systems were...
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Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development (2020) 10 (4): 927–939.
Date Online: 05 October 2020
.... squat versus sitting toilet) and frequency of emptying. Previous studies mapping the density of on - site sanitation facilities in urban areas of sub - Saharan Africa have relied upon ground - based surveys over small areas of ≤7 km 2 ( Wright et al. 2012 ; Nkhuwa et al. 2015 ). Here, we...
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Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development (2019) 9 (4): 703–713.
Date Online: 24 July 2019
... of toilets along with on-site waste management systems, capable of achieving required effluent quality, are essential. E-mail: ligy@iitm.ac.in 9 1 2019 9 6 2019 © IWA Publishing 2019 2019 bacteriological contamination groundwater quality hard rock areas sanitation...
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Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development (2019) 9 (3): 549–558.
Date Online: 28 June 2019
... provision backlog is substantial. It is magnified by the available statistics that present a very disappointing picture. In these areas, inadequate water supply, sanitation, drainage and rubbish collection in a crowded environment predispose the population to recurrent diarrhea and diseases such as typhoid...
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Water Sci Technol (2021) 84 (1): 1–15.
Date Online: 13 April 2021
..., toilets, streets, and drainage systems. In such cases, rains play a significant role in draining and accumulating fecal contamination in surface water bodies. Incidence of respiratory disease due to sewage-contaminated swimming pool water is a typical example of such contamination. Thus, disposal...
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