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The results are summarized in Table 1 in terms of classes of vulnerability to seepage along with the computed seepage probabilities, for 50 years’ return period. As can be seen, the proposed expeditious methodology allows to quickly analyze a large dataset identifying the levees characterized by the larger seepage probabilities, to properly address detailed controls and investigations. In this case, seven levees, shown in italic font in Table 1, are found to be prone to seepage. Overall, for all the flood durations, most of the investigated levees were characterized by a low vulnerability class (specifically, about 45%, 34%, and 25% for D equal to 12, 24, and 48 hours, respectively).

Table 1

Tiber River: class of vulnerability to seepage (and seepage probability) for the investigated levees for the /Hs ratio computed for a return period of 50 years (D= flood wave duration)

Left side leveeVulnerability class (seepage probability)
Right side leveeVulnerability class (seepage probability)
D = 12 hrD = 24 hrD = 48 hrD = 12 hrD = 24 hrD = 48 hr
Tv1sx overtopping overtopping overtopping Tv1dx high (0.60) high (0.69) high (0.74) 
Tv2sx overtopping overtopping overtopping Tv2dx overtopping overtopping overtopping 
Tv3sx low (0.04) low (0.06) low (0.09) Tv3dx overtopping overtopping overtopping 
Tv4sx mean (0.34) mean (0.41) mean(0.56) Tv4dx low (0.10) low (0.16) low (0.22) 
Tv5sx mean (0.34) mean (0.43) mean (0.58) Tv5dx overtopping overtopping overtopping 
Tv6sx overtopping overtopping overtopping Tv6dx overtopping overtopping overtopping 
Tv7sx overtopping overtopping overtopping Tv7dx low (0.24) mean (0.33) mean (0.38) 
Tv8sx low (0.03) low (0.05) low (0.07) Tv8dx low (0.01) low (0.03) low (0.05) 
Tv9sx low (0.01) low (0.03) low (0.04) Tv9dx overtopping overtopping overtopping 
Tv10sx low (0.01) low (0.03) low (0.05) Tv10dx mean (0.52) high (0.66) high (0.73) 
Tv11sx null null null Tv11dx overtopping overtopping overtopping 
Tv12sx mean (0.31) mean (0.36) mean (0.50) Tv12dx low (0.05) low (0.09) low (0.15) 
Tv13sx mean (0.42) mean (0.56) high (0.68) Tv13dx low (0.29) mean (0.35) mean (0.49) 
Tv14sx low (0.29) mean (0.35) mean (0.49) Tv14dx low (0.25) mean (0.34) mean (0.40) 
Tv15sx low (0.25) mean (0.34) mean (0.40) Tv15dx null null null 
Tv16sx low (0.22) low (0.29) mean (0.35) Tv16dx low (0.29) mean (0.35) mean (0.49) 
Tv17sx low (0.05) low (0.07) low (0.11) Tv17dx low (0.14) low (0.21) low (0.26) 
Tv18sx low (0.19) low (0.23) mean (0.30) Tv18dx low (0.11) low (0.20) low (0.24) 
Tv19sx low (0.22) low (0.29) mean (0.35) Tv19dx low (0.21) low (0.25) mean (0.34) 
Tv20sx low (0.14) low(0.21) low (0.26) Tv20dx low (0.22) low (0.29) mean (0.35) 
Tv21sx low (0.08) low (0.14) low (0.21) Tv21dx low (0.21) low (0.26) mean (0.34) 
Tv22sx null null null Tv22dx low (0.26) mean (0.34) mean (0.42) 
Tv23sx overtopping overtopping overtopping Tv23dx low (0.15) low (0.22) low (0.28) 
Tv24sx null null null Tv24dx low (0.12) low (0.20) low (0.24) 
Tv25sx null null null Tv25dx null null null 
Tv26sx null null null Tv26dx null null null 
Tv27sx null null null Tv27dx null null null 
Tv28sx null null null Tv28dx null null null 
Tv29sx mean (0.55) high (0.68) high (0.74) Tv29dx low (0.29) mean (0.35) mean (0.49) 
Tv30sx null null null Tv30dx mean (0.49) high (0.64) high (0.72) 
Tv31sx null null null Tv31dx low (0.08) low (0.12) low (0.20) 
Tv32sx null null null Tv32dx mean (0.36) mean (0.49) high (0.63) 
Tv33sx low (0.06) low (0.09) low (0.15) Tv33dx low (0.10) low (0.20) low (0.23) 
       Tv34dx mean (0.41) mean (0.56) high (0.67) 
Left side leveeVulnerability class (seepage probability)
Right side leveeVulnerability class (seepage probability)
D = 12 hrD = 24 hrD = 48 hrD = 12 hrD = 24 hrD = 48 hr
Tv1sx overtopping overtopping overtopping Tv1dx high (0.60) high (0.69) high (0.74) 
Tv2sx overtopping overtopping overtopping Tv2dx overtopping overtopping overtopping 
Tv3sx low (0.04) low (0.06) low (0.09) Tv3dx overtopping overtopping overtopping 
Tv4sx mean (0.34) mean (0.41) mean(0.56) Tv4dx low (0.10) low (0.16) low (0.22) 
Tv5sx mean (0.34) mean (0.43) mean (0.58) Tv5dx overtopping overtopping overtopping 
Tv6sx overtopping overtopping overtopping Tv6dx overtopping overtopping overtopping 
Tv7sx overtopping overtopping overtopping Tv7dx low (0.24) mean (0.33) mean (0.38) 
Tv8sx low (0.03) low (0.05) low (0.07) Tv8dx low (0.01) low (0.03) low (0.05) 
Tv9sx low (0.01) low (0.03) low (0.04) Tv9dx overtopping overtopping overtopping 
Tv10sx low (0.01) low (0.03) low (0.05) Tv10dx mean (0.52) high (0.66) high (0.73) 
Tv11sx null null null Tv11dx overtopping overtopping overtopping 
Tv12sx mean (0.31) mean (0.36) mean (0.50) Tv12dx low (0.05) low (0.09) low (0.15) 
Tv13sx mean (0.42) mean (0.56) high (0.68) Tv13dx low (0.29) mean (0.35) mean (0.49) 
Tv14sx low (0.29) mean (0.35) mean (0.49) Tv14dx low (0.25) mean (0.34) mean (0.40) 
Tv15sx low (0.25) mean (0.34) mean (0.40) Tv15dx null null null 
Tv16sx low (0.22) low (0.29) mean (0.35) Tv16dx low (0.29) mean (0.35) mean (0.49) 
Tv17sx low (0.05) low (0.07) low (0.11) Tv17dx low (0.14) low (0.21) low (0.26) 
Tv18sx low (0.19) low (0.23) mean (0.30) Tv18dx low (0.11) low (0.20) low (0.24) 
Tv19sx low (0.22) low (0.29) mean (0.35) Tv19dx low (0.21) low (0.25) mean (0.34) 
Tv20sx low (0.14) low(0.21) low (0.26) Tv20dx low (0.22) low (0.29) mean (0.35) 
Tv21sx low (0.08) low (0.14) low (0.21) Tv21dx low (0.21) low (0.26) mean (0.34) 
Tv22sx null null null Tv22dx low (0.26) mean (0.34) mean (0.42) 
Tv23sx overtopping overtopping overtopping Tv23dx low (0.15) low (0.22) low (0.28) 
Tv24sx null null null Tv24dx low (0.12) low (0.20) low (0.24) 
Tv25sx null null null Tv25dx null null null 
Tv26sx null null null Tv26dx null null null 
Tv27sx null null null Tv27dx null null null 
Tv28sx null null null Tv28dx null null null 
Tv29sx mean (0.55) high (0.68) high (0.74) Tv29dx low (0.29) mean (0.35) mean (0.49) 
Tv30sx null null null Tv30dx mean (0.49) high (0.64) high (0.72) 
Tv31sx null null null Tv31dx low (0.08) low (0.12) low (0.20) 
Tv32sx null null null Tv32dx mean (0.36) mean (0.49) high (0.63) 
Tv33sx low (0.06) low (0.09) low (0.15) Tv33dx low (0.10) low (0.20) low (0.23) 
       Tv34dx mean (0.41) mean (0.56) high (0.67) 

The levees affected by failure during the severe flood of November 2005 are in bold font.

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