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The basic geographic information was derived from a DEM (Figure 1) at a resolution of 1.0 km from the National Geomatics Centre of China (http://ngcc.sbsm.gov.cn/). The land use map in 2000 (Figure 2(a)) at scale of 1:250,000 was obtained from the Data Center for Resources and Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Vegetation parameters evolve with seasons; the vegetation parameters, including the vegetation coverage rate (Veg), leaf area index (LAI), vegetation height (hc), root depth (lr) and minimum stomatal resistance (rs) (Jia et al. 2009), are shown in Table 1. The soil-type map (Figure 2(b)) at a scale of 1:1,000,000 was provided by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (http://westdc.westgis.ac.cn), and the relative soil physical properties (Table 2) were calculated according to information from the China soil database (http://www.soil.csdb.cn). Finally, the maps of land use and soil type were converted into grids with a resolution of 1.0 km to match the resolution of the distributed hydrological model.
Table 1

Vegetation parameters

TypeParameterJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Wood Veg 0.24 0.24 0.36 0.48 0.72 0.84 0.96 0.96 0.84 0.6 0.36 0.24 
LAI 1.20 1.20 1.56 2.16 3.00 3.36 3.6 3.6 3.36 2.76 2.16 1.20 
hc (m) 10 
lr (m) 1.5 
rs (s/m) 250 
Grass Veg 0.12 0.12 0.24 0.36 0.60 0.84 0.96 0.96 0.72 0.48 0.24 0.12 
LAI 0.60 0.60 0.72 1.20 1.80 2.16 2.40 2.40 1.92 1.44 0.72 0.60 
hc (m) 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 
lr (m) 0.3 
rs (s/m) 250 
Shrub Veg 0.24 0.24 0.36 0.48 0.72 0.84 0.96 0.96 0.84 0.60 0.36 0.24 
LAI 1.20 1.20 1.56 2.16 3.00 3.36 3.60 3.60 3.36 2.76 2.16 1.20 
hc (m) 
lr (m) 0.8 
rs (s/m) 250 
Crop Veg 0.01 0.01 0.12 0.12 0.36 0.60 0.84 0.96 0.12 0.12 0.01 0.01 
LAI 0.01 0.01 0.12 0.60 1.20 2.40 3.60 3.60 0.12 0.12 0.01 0.01 
hc (m) 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 
lr (m) 0.3 
rs (s/m) 250 
TypeParameterJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Wood Veg 0.24 0.24 0.36 0.48 0.72 0.84 0.96 0.96 0.84 0.6 0.36 0.24 
LAI 1.20 1.20 1.56 2.16 3.00 3.36 3.6 3.6 3.36 2.76 2.16 1.20 
hc (m) 10 
lr (m) 1.5 
rs (s/m) 250 
Grass Veg 0.12 0.12 0.24 0.36 0.60 0.84 0.96 0.96 0.72 0.48 0.24 0.12 
LAI 0.60 0.60 0.72 1.20 1.80 2.16 2.40 2.40 1.92 1.44 0.72 0.60 
hc (m) 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 
lr (m) 0.3 
rs (s/m) 250 
Shrub Veg 0.24 0.24 0.36 0.48 0.72 0.84 0.96 0.96 0.84 0.60 0.36 0.24 
LAI 1.20 1.20 1.56 2.16 3.00 3.36 3.60 3.60 3.36 2.76 2.16 1.20 
hc (m) 
lr (m) 0.8 
rs (s/m) 250 
Crop Veg 0.01 0.01 0.12 0.12 0.36 0.60 0.84 0.96 0.12 0.12 0.01 0.01 
LAI 0.01 0.01 0.12 0.60 1.20 2.40 3.60 3.60 0.12 0.12 0.01 0.01 
hc (m) 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 
lr (m) 0.3 
rs (s/m) 250 
Table 2

Soil moisture characteristics parameters

ParametersSandy soilSilty loamClay loam
Saturated moisture content  0.396 0.412 0.44 
Residual moisture content  0.083 0.129 0.135 
Single molecule moisture content  0.015 0.05 0.111 
Field capacity  0.177 0.284 0.319 
Saturated hydraulic conductivity ks (m/s) 3.0 × 10−5 6.5 × 10−6 2.5 × 10−6 
ParametersSandy soilSilty loamClay loam
Saturated moisture content  0.396 0.412 0.44 
Residual moisture content  0.083 0.129 0.135 
Single molecule moisture content  0.015 0.05 0.111 
Field capacity  0.177 0.284 0.319 
Saturated hydraulic conductivity ks (m/s) 3.0 × 10−5 6.5 × 10−6 2.5 × 10−6 
Figure 2

Distribution of (a) land use and (b) soil type in the Naqu River Basin.

Figure 2

Distribution of (a) land use and (b) soil type in the Naqu River Basin.

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