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The five prescribed evaluation criteria in the section ‘Evaluation criteria for calculated outflows' are calculated according to the estimated outflows and shown in Table 3. In general, the VEP-NLMM-L produced the most accurate routing outflows in terms of all criteria and the forecasting accuracy increased with the number of inflow dividing levels. All the models except the LMM-L estimate the peak outflow on the correct time interval (DPOT = 0). The VEP-NLMM-L with L = 4 estimates the closest peak outflow to the observed value among all models.

Table 3

Evaluation criteria of the estimated outflows for the data set of Wilson (1974) 

ModelDPODPOTηMAREMAE
LMM-L (O'Donnell 1985) 5.80 −1 93.33 0.137 4.918 
NLMM2 (Niazkar & Afzali 2014) 0.70 99.70 0.028 0.994 
VEP-NLMM-L (this study) L = 1 0.20 99.91 0.017 0.593 
L = 2 0.31 99.94 0.014 0.481 
L = 3 0.10 99.95 0.012 0.390 
L = 4 0.03 99.96 0.012 0.354 
L = 5 0.26 99.96 0.010 0.334 
ModelDPODPOTηMAREMAE
LMM-L (O'Donnell 1985) 5.80 −1 93.33 0.137 4.918 
NLMM2 (Niazkar & Afzali 2014) 0.70 99.70 0.028 0.994 
VEP-NLMM-L (this study) L = 1 0.20 99.91 0.017 0.593 
L = 2 0.31 99.94 0.014 0.481 
L = 3 0.10 99.95 0.012 0.390 
L = 4 0.03 99.96 0.012 0.354 
L = 5 0.26 99.96 0.010 0.334 

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