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The study area, the Wu River watershed, is located in central Taiwan. The basin encompasses an area of about 2025.6 km2, and the river is about 119.1 km long. Without any hydraulic storage structures, such as reservoirs and dams, the runoff of the Wu River intrinsically reflects the watershed's response to the rainfall characteristics. Within the Wu River watershed, there are 26 automatic recording raingauges (see Figure 4 and Table 2). In Taiwan, the QPESUMS (Quantitative Rainfall Estimation Using Multiple Sensors system) became operational in late 2001 and incorporates data from multiple sensors, such as raingauges, multiple radars, satellites, numerical models, and lightning detectors with the goal of making reasonable quantitative precipitation estimations (QPE) and quantitative forecast, applicable to flash flood and debris flow warnings (Jou et al. 2006). Although the QPE data are produced based on the radar data from the Weather Bureau in Taiwan, they have been corrected based on the gauged rainfall data (Wu et al. 2015a, 2015b). Thus, using the gauged data, the QPE data can be effectively corrected, and this results in fewer uncertainties in the QPE (e.g. Abdella & Alfredsen 2010). Therefore, in this study, the QPE data are treated as the grid-based rainfall data used in the model development. The QPESUMS provides 1,336 grids of QPE rainfall data in the Wu River watershed.
Table 2

Summary of raingauges in Wu River watershed

Location
No of gaugeGaugeTM_X (m)TM_Y(m)
RG1 Qing-Liu (1) 244435.5 2662715 
RG2 Cui-Luan (1) 269444.9 2675033 
RG3 Liu-Fen-Liao 212393.2 2647843 
RG4 Cao-Tun 216645.6 2652601 
RG5 Bei-Shan (1) 238411.7 2653644 
RG6 Tou-Bain-Keng 231025.8 2668203 
RG7 Hui-Sun 253671.2 2665883 
RG8 Ri-Yue-Tan 240635.6 2641873 
RG9 Yu-Chi 242744.5 2644064 
RG10 Zhang-Hu 234457.1 2644525 
RG11 Tai-Chung 217891.9 2671200 
RG12 Qing-Liu 246222.9 2663997 
RG13 Da-Du-Cheng 245150.6 2651749 
RG14 Ling-Xiao 251510.3 2656920 
RG15 Pu-Li 249108.6 2650829 
RG16 Cui-Luan 273035.8 2676373 
RG17 Feng-Shu-Lin 257758.4 2653566 
RG18 Ren-Ai 263320.5 2657113 
RG19 Kun-Yang 277805.5 2668485 
RG20 Rui-Yan 268616.3 2668748 
RG21 Cui-Feng 270824.1 2667111 
RG22 Bei-Shan 237235.1 2653415 
RG23 Shui-Chang-Liu 235829 2661878 
RG24 Chang-Fu 237785.6 2666339 
RG25 Wai-Da-Ping 241638.9 2650466 
RG26 Pu-Zhong 2635217 321.6667 
Location
No of gaugeGaugeTM_X (m)TM_Y(m)
RG1 Qing-Liu (1) 244435.5 2662715 
RG2 Cui-Luan (1) 269444.9 2675033 
RG3 Liu-Fen-Liao 212393.2 2647843 
RG4 Cao-Tun 216645.6 2652601 
RG5 Bei-Shan (1) 238411.7 2653644 
RG6 Tou-Bain-Keng 231025.8 2668203 
RG7 Hui-Sun 253671.2 2665883 
RG8 Ri-Yue-Tan 240635.6 2641873 
RG9 Yu-Chi 242744.5 2644064 
RG10 Zhang-Hu 234457.1 2644525 
RG11 Tai-Chung 217891.9 2671200 
RG12 Qing-Liu 246222.9 2663997 
RG13 Da-Du-Cheng 245150.6 2651749 
RG14 Ling-Xiao 251510.3 2656920 
RG15 Pu-Li 249108.6 2650829 
RG16 Cui-Luan 273035.8 2676373 
RG17 Feng-Shu-Lin 257758.4 2653566 
RG18 Ren-Ai 263320.5 2657113 
RG19 Kun-Yang 277805.5 2668485 
RG20 Rui-Yan 268616.3 2668748 
RG21 Cui-Feng 270824.1 2667111 
RG22 Bei-Shan 237235.1 2653415 
RG23 Shui-Chang-Liu 235829 2661878 
RG24 Chang-Fu 237785.6 2666339 
RG25 Wai-Da-Ping 241638.9 2650466 
RG26 Pu-Zhong 2635217 321.6667 
Figure 4

Locations of 1336 QPSESUMS grids and 26 raingauges in Wu River watershed.

Figure 4

Locations of 1336 QPSESUMS grids and 26 raingauges in Wu River watershed.

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