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The total phosphorus (TP) of the sediments was measured using standardized methods and tests (Ruban et al. 2001). The phosphorus concentration in the extracted solution or water body was determined with the molybdenum blue method after the solution was filtered (0.45 μm filtration membrane) (Murphy & Riley 1962). The pH of the sediment was measured in a 1:2.5 (w/v) mixture of sediment with deionized water (Liao et al. 2014). Organic matter (OM) content was calculated according to the loss on ignition to constant mass (4 h) at 550 °C. The particle size distribution was determined with a particle size analyzer (Hydro2000Mu, Malvern, UK). The main properties of the collected sediments are shown in Table 1.

Table 1

Physicochemical properties (mean value ± standard deviation) of five sediments in 2011 and 2013 (each n = 5)

Particle size distribution (%)
SampleYearTP in overlying water (mg L−1)TP (mg kg−1)pHOM (%)< 63 μm63–125 μm125–250 μm250–500 μm500–2,000 μm
D1 2011 0.062 ± 0.003 710.23 ± 48.23 7.27 ± 0.07 7.12 ± 0.11 39.32 ± 0.52 44.04 ± 2.21 13.95 ± 0.92 2.66 ± 0.23 
2013 0.058 ± 0.004 754.24 ± 51.23 7.35 ± 0.06 7.84 ± 0.12 45.01 ± 0.45 16.82 ± 1.23 16.3 ± 1.29 15.77 ± 0.83 6.1 ± 0.58 
D2 2011 0.065 ± 0.004 582.48 ± 42.47 7.56 ± 0.11 6.42 ± 0.12 25.38 ± 0.42 2.04 ± 0.87 30.32 ± 2.91 38.76 ± 0.67 3.49 ± 0.28 
2013 0.061 ± 0.005 610.24 ± 52.32 7.87 ± 0.09 7.05 ± 0.10 54.87 ± 1.21 17.7 ± 0.78 11.51 ± 1.28 10.81 ± 0.89 5.11 ± 0.87 
D3 2011 0.077 ± 0.005 751.24 ± 64.21 7.12 ± 0.07 4.89 ± 0.10 51.51 ± 0.87 22.36 ± 1.98 15.52 ± 1.26 9.95 ± 1.24 0.65 ± 0.11 
2013 0.063 ± 0.004 772.34 ± 59.72 7.21 ± 0.08 4.32 ± 0.08 65.19 ± 1.45 24.15 ± 1.23 7.38 ± 0.87 2.77 ± 0.45 0.49 ± 0.09 
D4 2011 0.081 ± 0.005 600.23 ± 44.73 7.32 ± 0.10 5.62 ± 0.12 50.55 ± 1.82 23.53 ± 2.11 14.76 ± 1.82 9.22 ± 1.02 1.94 ± 0.12 
2013 0.069 ± 0.003 621.24 ± 48.72 7.39 ± 0.09 5.89 ± 0.11 46.8 ± 0.89 30.26 ± 1.28 18.6 ± 0.78 3.91 ± 0.46 0.44 ± 0.07 
D5 2011 0.086 ± 0.005 592.37 ± 39.82 7.76 ± 0.06 6.24 ± 0.13 54.33 ± 0.78 25.96 ± 0.87 12.65 ± 0.68 5.16 ± 0.67 1.89 ± 0.08 
2013 0.072 ± 0.006 609.23 ± 42.38 7.81 ± 0.10 6.54 ± 0.12 56.45 ± 1.87 43.46 ± 1.76 0.09 ± 0.02 
Particle size distribution (%)
SampleYearTP in overlying water (mg L−1)TP (mg kg−1)pHOM (%)< 63 μm63–125 μm125–250 μm250–500 μm500–2,000 μm
D1 2011 0.062 ± 0.003 710.23 ± 48.23 7.27 ± 0.07 7.12 ± 0.11 39.32 ± 0.52 44.04 ± 2.21 13.95 ± 0.92 2.66 ± 0.23 
2013 0.058 ± 0.004 754.24 ± 51.23 7.35 ± 0.06 7.84 ± 0.12 45.01 ± 0.45 16.82 ± 1.23 16.3 ± 1.29 15.77 ± 0.83 6.1 ± 0.58 
D2 2011 0.065 ± 0.004 582.48 ± 42.47 7.56 ± 0.11 6.42 ± 0.12 25.38 ± 0.42 2.04 ± 0.87 30.32 ± 2.91 38.76 ± 0.67 3.49 ± 0.28 
2013 0.061 ± 0.005 610.24 ± 52.32 7.87 ± 0.09 7.05 ± 0.10 54.87 ± 1.21 17.7 ± 0.78 11.51 ± 1.28 10.81 ± 0.89 5.11 ± 0.87 
D3 2011 0.077 ± 0.005 751.24 ± 64.21 7.12 ± 0.07 4.89 ± 0.10 51.51 ± 0.87 22.36 ± 1.98 15.52 ± 1.26 9.95 ± 1.24 0.65 ± 0.11 
2013 0.063 ± 0.004 772.34 ± 59.72 7.21 ± 0.08 4.32 ± 0.08 65.19 ± 1.45 24.15 ± 1.23 7.38 ± 0.87 2.77 ± 0.45 0.49 ± 0.09 
D4 2011 0.081 ± 0.005 600.23 ± 44.73 7.32 ± 0.10 5.62 ± 0.12 50.55 ± 1.82 23.53 ± 2.11 14.76 ± 1.82 9.22 ± 1.02 1.94 ± 0.12 
2013 0.069 ± 0.003 621.24 ± 48.72 7.39 ± 0.09 5.89 ± 0.11 46.8 ± 0.89 30.26 ± 1.28 18.6 ± 0.78 3.91 ± 0.46 0.44 ± 0.07 
D5 2011 0.086 ± 0.005 592.37 ± 39.82 7.76 ± 0.06 6.24 ± 0.13 54.33 ± 0.78 25.96 ± 0.87 12.65 ± 0.68 5.16 ± 0.67 1.89 ± 0.08 
2013 0.072 ± 0.006 609.23 ± 42.38 7.81 ± 0.10 6.54 ± 0.12 56.45 ± 1.87 43.46 ± 1.76 0.09 ± 0.02 

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