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The simulated daily runoff series under the two scenarios were consistent for the Zhamashenke and Yingluoxia stations. As observed, GISMOD reproduces the observed runoff fairly well. The NSE is unchanged at Zhamashenke station (0.67) and slightly changed (from 0.70 to 0.71) at Yingluoxia station during the period (Table 7). Chen et al. (2003a) found a poor performance, with relatively small NSE values (less than 0.4), without validation. Xia et al. (2003) and Wang et al. (2003) provided very good results, with NSEs of 0.75 and 0.83, with only one year of data for calibration. According to the previous studies, the performance of the GISMOD is acceptable in the daily runoff estimation of the upper reaches, where there is little influence from human activities. However, due to the complexity of the water sources in this region (including glaciers and snowmelt), runoff is highly variable, especially during the rainy season. Therefore, the simulated results capture the observed peak flow but usually underestimate NSE at these two stations.

Table 7

NES and RE of two kinds of simulated runoff

Station NSE
RE
Sim_1Sim_2Sim_1Sim_2
Zhamashenke Daily 0.67 0.67 − 19.4% − 19.6% 
Monthly 0.82 0.82 
Yingluoxia Daily 0.70 0.71 18.3% 16.4% 
Monthly 0.89 0.90 
Gaoya Daily −29.67 0.23 651% 6.5% 
Monthly −74.95 0.52 
Zhengyixia Daily −15.97 0.17 389% − 3.6% 
Monthly −34.64 0.72 
Station NSE
RE
Sim_1Sim_2Sim_1Sim_2
Zhamashenke Daily 0.67 0.67 − 19.4% − 19.6% 
Monthly 0.82 0.82 
Yingluoxia Daily 0.70 0.71 18.3% 16.4% 
Monthly 0.89 0.90 
Gaoya Daily −29.67 0.23 651% 6.5% 
Monthly −74.95 0.52 
Zhengyixia Daily −15.97 0.17 389% − 3.6% 
Monthly −34.64 0.72 

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